Origins of the Cold War

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 21-01-18 20:59
Origins of Second World War
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For the disagreement over the dates of the origins of the cold war based on ww2, what is the earliest date suggested and why?
1917- Insecurity created with the creation of the Soviet Union with Russian Revolution 1917
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What is another date suggesed when the US and Soviet Union begin to interact?
1941
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Why do some say 1945?
End of WW2- They worked together and co-operated to defeat Japan, Germany, Italy etc.
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What is the latest date suggested and why?
1947, -Ideoogical vs security- Cold War could mean dominating world affairs, which doesn't begin until then
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Therefore, ideologically how on par are Russian and US?
US and Russia are ideologically opposed to one another
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Was there wartime co-operation?
Soviet Union focuss on own campaign on the Eastern Front whereas USA, UK, Canada, France etc worked together in the West,
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Was there diplomatic co-operation?
When to attack- Soviets want to know when Western allies will open a Second Front, when they will invade into Europe- Disappointment from Soviet Union,
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Did Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill meet?
Yes in 1943 and at Yalta in 1945- Met multiple times- By then Roosevelt has died and suceeded by Truman
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When does wartime rivalry truely begin?
When they plan for peace- There are rival views of how peace settlement will be put
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For differences between the two countries, how did they differ based on liberalism?
US was a liberla democracy with a capitalist economic system, free enterprise vs single party state, centralised planned economy with central direction from government
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What is another difference based on religion?
Proletarian dominated state vs largely Christian belief- Originate in 18th C Englightenment
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What is another difference based on power over others?
Globalism vs spheres of influence
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What did the soviet union want a spehre of influence for?
SU faced Germany onslaught sicne 1941 and wanted to create security barrier amogn its border in Eastern Europe- Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria would fall within Soviet Union- Soviets believe this is understandable,
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What did America mean in terms of globalism?
America- Want free world, to trade, facisism to be destroyed and global peace
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Do their views clash?
Views don't necessarily clash- If they could tolerate the SOviets border,
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In terms of responsibility for the war, what role did the US have?
-A-bomb, fought own war against Japan, Germany, Italy and financed British war, no invasions like Europe
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Therefore how did they fare at the end of th ewar?
Better off at the end of the war- No invasions and only with atomic bomb- American living standards go up
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What role did the USSR have in the war?
Lost war against POland, lost war against Finland, then invaded by Hitler,
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Therefore how did they fare at the end of the war?
Insecure- Lost over 20 milllion, Marxist ideology makes it feel isolated and its generally disliekd in the period
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In terms of regional instability, what happened to the 6 main powers?
Big 2 1/2- USA and USSR big power and Britain reduced in power
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IS there a Cold War by the end of the war?
No but potential
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What does Leffler say US policy makers thought their nation's security depended on?
A favourable balance of power in Eurasia, an open and prosperous world economy, a strategic sphere of influence in Latin America
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hat does Leffler say about some key obstacles of US objectives rather than Soviet union policies and actions?
Socio-economc dislocation, revolutionary nationalism, vacuums of power in Europe and Asia,
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Who draws on recently available Soviet records to trace how Stalin's views and policies evolved during WW2?
Roberts
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What does Roberts say about these policies in records and soviet speechs in terms of similarity?
Roberts argues views and policies revealed in these records are strikingly similar to those in Soviet speeches and other public statements
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What does hsi research show that while Stalin did want a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, did he want war with USA?
No- He hoped until 1947 he could achieve his goals while maintaining good relations with US and GB
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Which ideology was favoured in the outcome of war?
Favoured the LEft and Soviet Union, at least in short run
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Why was the Left favoured based on what people yearned for?
Significant socioeconomic reforms, structural changes in their economies and political institutions, and improvements in living conditions
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Why were right wing groups often discredited?
Due to their association with the defeated Axis powers,
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Why did this worry the US?
Communist part membership began to soar, an US policy makers were worried that if they took pwer, they would pusue policies to help the SU
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When did crises in Iran, Turkey and Grece begin?
Late 1945 and early 1946
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Why was there increased tensions in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East?
Part of generla reconstructing of power relationships in the region- Changes that threatened the Western position in East Mediterranean and Middle East,
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What was economiclly improtant about Iran?
It contained extensive petroleum reserves and the world's largest oil refinery
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However what was wrong with its terrain?
It constituted a barrier between the Soviet Union and oilfields along Persian Gulf
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WHo occupied Iran?
British and Soviet forces and 30,000 US troops to expedite delivery of supplis to Soviet Union
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How have historians viewed the Iranian crisis?
As pivotal even in COld War
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Although Soviets could be blamed for refusing to withdraw their forces as specified by the Treaty, where did its roots lie?
It roots lay in great power rivalry and internal politics in Iran,
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Britain held the power in Iran in oil and politics, so how did they view Soviet and American forces?
They were threatened and felt udnermined,
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How did the Soviets view Turkey?
Control fo the straits between the Medieterranean and Black Sea was strategic liability and hoped to change the rules governing the straits after the war,
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How did Us and GB view Turkey?
As critical to the defense of the Middle East
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What actions were they against by the Soviets in forcing Turkey to do what?
To share control of the straits and to cede some land disputed territory in Nroth East Turkey
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What do a growing number of historians in Great Britain and on the continent contest about the Codl War/
They contest the bipolar interpretation of the origins of the Cold War
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What did they maintain about who was responsible?
They maintain European nations and elites had more responsibility for developments than is usually assigned to them by American scholars
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What did Reynolds say lay at the hear of the Codl War?
What to do abotu Germany
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What did Naimark say the Soviets couldn't find a balance for?
Thei rdesires for revenge and reparations and their security needs, which caled for a friendly Germany
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What als oshaped the Cold War?
International economic developments
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What did econoic hardship threatened to spark?
Conflict between nations as well as to rekindle clas strife within nations,
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In the 30s, what had the world split into and how?
Economic blocs- US turned inward adn to a lesser extent towards Latin America, and Soviets tried to construct Socialism in one country through collectivisation of agriculture and forced industrialisation,
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After WW2, what five developments shaped the international system?
-Great power rivalries, -Changes in technology of warfare, -Transnational ideological conflict, -Reform and reconstruction of the world capitalist system, -Movement of national liberation,
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What did these events accentuate, generate, polarise and split?
-Accenutating tensions between US and Soviet Union, -Generated an arms races, -Polarising domestic and international policies, -Splitting the world into miltiary and political blocs,
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In Europe 1945-7, how was the level of diplomatic contact and why?
Regular high level to discuss peace treaties with defeated powers
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In Eastern Eruope, what country was used as a test in the creation of the soviet sphere?
Poland
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How fast was this process and an example?
It was gradual- Czechoslovakia doesn't become part of the Soviet state until 1948
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Did this cause the COld war?
No the clamp own was a reust of the outbreak rather than a cause
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How did the West view this take over of Poland?
There were fears in the West as to what was to come beyond Soviet borders
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Was the danger Western Europe percieved just from the Soviets?
No local COmmunsit strength in France and Itlay too
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Was this enough to lead them into Cold War?
Not going to become enemies- USA didn't have enough interest in Eastern Europe to make it worth while
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Why was the Red Army particualrly a threat?
As American troops withdrawn from Europe after the war except those from occupation duties- Problem rather than cause?
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Why was Germany the major prize?
Advanced stat at centre of Europe, zonal divison, Soviets want reparations, share in Ruhr
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What do the Soviet Union want from Germany?
-large reperations- 20 billion dollars worth, -Share in economic power house in West Germany, the Ruhr
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Did Gb and US agree?
No-Diplomatic contacts break down, they don't want to see the Red Army so close to home
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For some key documents, when was the FUlton speech?
5th March 1946
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What did it suggest about the relationship between Gb and us/
They will work closely, 'a special relationship between the British common wealth... and United States'
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What do they say is Russia's reason for 'an iron curtain'?
'I do nto believe that soviet Russia desires war. What they desire is the fruits of war and indefinite expansion of their power and doctrines'
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What is the message behind this speech?
Gb and US need to stand up toUSSR
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is this an improtnt speech?
Could be exaggerated-Churchil isn't in power at this point so little influence, Truman listens and denies he saw the speech in advance and many in US saw it as war mongering
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For Stalin's reply a few days later, what did he accuse churchil of wanting?
War based on race theory
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What does he emphasise about WW2 and victory?
He says the USSR did most to defeat Hitelr and is trying to guarantee the Soviet Union's safety
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When ws the Truman doctrine written?
12th March 1947
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What dilemmia did America face? Was this caused by teh USSR?
Influence limited in Far East- Greece caused by indigenous people rather than soviets- Wrong to believe they were expanding but some Americans did
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What did he say it was important for th eUS to support?
'supprot free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures'
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What was America's dilemmai with Greece and Turkey?
If GB don't support Greece and Turkey, should they step in? IF yes- money from where?
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When was the marshall plan?
15th June 1947
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Who was marshal?
Secretary of State
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Whart was the motivation behind this plan whn he went to Moscow to discuss German peace settlement?
He sees devestation and economic distress in Europe- Will lead people to vote communist
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What is this plan?
'The US shoudl do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace'
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Is this a problem for the Soviet Union?
Yes a threat- It undermines Soviet security and attack ideology
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What does the marshall plan force?
Western and Easter blocs
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Did diplomatci discussions continue?
They broke down-Fail to agree on German peace Treaty
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What did the Western bloc decide?
To pursue own policy in Germany
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For division ofEuroep 1947-49, what was Stalin's response to the plan?
Conformism- Shows weakness of soviet position- Little money available to them for their bloc,
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What Treaty and when was the Western allies military alliance?
North Atlantic Treaty April 1949
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Why were US sceptical at first?
1948- Election year. Isolations still in government and so Truman had to tred carefuly- West organise themselves fiirst, and after 1948 military alliance rapidly forms
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What was another form of European integration led by France?
May 1950 schuman Plan
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What did this plan do?
It united coal and steel industries in states that wished to join- Sex members,
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What is another organisation organsied by the US to break down trade barriers?
Organisation of European Economic Co-operation
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For 1949-50: global cold war, why was the Chinese civil war a blow for the US?
The US avoids intervention but China becomes Communist- Chinese co-operate more with Stalin
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What was another blow for the US in Sept 1949?
Soviet atomic bomb- Far earlier than anyone expected-Advanced from spy networks- Soviets look in better position
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What treaty was made between USSr and China in Feb 1950?
Sino-Soviet Treaty of friendship, alliance and mutual assistance
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In February 1950, what policy was introduced in the US?
NSC-68- Militarisation
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What did they say the USSR was seeking/ motivated by?
Motivated by 'fanatic faith' and seeks world power, wages, political economi and psychological warfare'
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why do they do this based on the type fo war?
Cannot rule out 'hot war'
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When was did Korean War begin?
June 1950
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What did Stalin underestimate about Korea?
That it was important to the US- Looked like a small peninsula no one cared about,
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What does the Stalin do?
he thinks he can suceed- Encourages North Koreans to attack South Korea, talks to Mao about how sensible this idea is and in June 1950, deceiving the Americans, North Korea invaded South
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Did Stalin send troops?
No he doesn't
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What did the US decide to do with what plan?
Intervenes with MacArthur- Launches naval invasion on North Korea,
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However, who joins the fight in November and why?
Chinese, -They don't want creation of Western state next to the border, so invade North Korea and lasts for 3 years
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For the impact of Korea, what war developed between US and China? How did this invovled USSR?
A hot war occured between them, -Stlain careful to stand aside
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What did it lead to in the US?
McCarthyism and Lavander Scare- Purging government of homosexuals in fear they would help soviets
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Who criticised Truman?
Republicans
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What was propsoed in Germany in Spet 1950?
German rearmament
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For COld War fighting, what are they trying to avoid?
WW3 but it contineus to spread round the world
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However, what can be possible, such as with Korea?
Regional wars are possible
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Who operated intelligence operations/ liberation in Albania?
Britain
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What did they hope to do in Albania?
Break up the soviet bloc and take war to the soviets- 'liberatio' tested in Albania
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Was this successful?
They couldnt undermine the government0 Shows can't do it in other palces
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What two races were occuring at the time?
Arms race e.g. Hydrogen bomb, -Space race- Inter-continental missles
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What was the COCOM based on economics?
Western powers set up the co-ordinating committee which decides the Soviet vulnerabilities based on minerals and technology and ensures they don't gain them from Western coutnries
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How was their psychological warfare?
Propoganda (win over allies, undermine the enemy)- War of ideas, to make own side look good and other evil
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Hwo did US change their national security?
1947 National Security Council in US- Draws in defence people, inteligence agency, CIA created
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While historians have offered many interpretations of the Cold War, what are they often shaped and grounded in?
Groudned in deep, ideological and philosophical differences. Many of these interpretations were themselves shaped by the ongoing Cold War,
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What did the end of the COld War allow based on archives?
Allwoed the limited opening of archvies in the former Soviet union and its allies, provides opportunity to reassess its beginnings
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What are the three US schools of tought?
-Traditionalist/Orthodox, -Revisionist/New LEft, -Post revisionist
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For traditionalist/Orthodox, what gender predominately were these?
Males
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Who did they blame for the outbreak fo codl war?
They were defenders of US policies and blamed Soviet Union
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How did they describe USSR as being motivated by?
Ideologically and expansionist motivated
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What did US officials try to do with Soviets?
Tried to get along with Soviets but realsied their drive for world domination was too much
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Why did this traditional view come back in 1990s?
As scholars seized newly available soviet records to argue soviet foreign policy was ideologically motivated, aggressively expansionist and morally repugnant
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When was Revisionist/NEw Left created?
1950s/70s
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Who did they blame for the war?
US policies were expansionist and thus played important part in beginning Cold War
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When were most writing which could have affected their viewws?
Writing dueing Vietnam War and growing availability fo US records led to criticism of their policies
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What did they point to in America's history?
Long history of American economic expansionism and argued ideological beliefs and economic interests significantly shaped US policies
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Who was part of post-revisionist view?
John Gaddis
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What did this begin?
Start of a balanced view
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Where was there more dbeate?
In west than East- more wooden
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Is all archival material freeluy availabel fro Cold war?
American archival material plentiful, but documentation on soviet foreign policy remains incomplete so difficult to say with confidence the motives and goals of SU
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For Britain, who argues that Britian had a role in starting the COdl War?
Rothwell- Bankrupt but still improtant role and without them they wouldn't have had the Truman speech about not maintaining Greece
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Who from Soviet archives said what about Stalin and Truman and policy?
Pipe, -Stalin really mattered in soviet policy than Truman did in American policy
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What has been the cultural turn sicne 1995?
A renewed interest in dieology: Hunt- Not about territorial conflict but belief systems
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For example, who looks at US cultural expansion in Austria and found they won Austria over with what?
-Wagnleitner, -Americans win over Austrians with idea of free enterprise and things like coca-cola and Disney- Soviets lose out
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Dod the Soviet own this cultural expansion too?
No- Americans without dollars- Create propaganda machine
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

For the disagreement over the dates of the origins of the cold war based on ww2, what is the earliest date suggested and why?

Back

1917- Insecurity created with the creation of the Soviet Union with Russian Revolution 1917

Card 3

Front

What is another date suggesed when the US and Soviet Union begin to interact?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do some say 1945?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the latest date suggested and why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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