9. Goal setting

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  • Goal setting
    • Goal setting can develop positive self-perception and reduce anxiety
    • The correct use of goal setting can facilitate optimal performance
    • LOCK & LATHAM
      • Goal setting influences performance in 4 ways:
        • 1. it directs attention onto a required task or strategy
        • 2. it increases effort
        • 3. it improves persistence when a task becomes difficult or failure is experienced
        • 4. participant becomes increasingly motivated to learn and apply different approaches to learning in order to complete task
    • Goals are not automatically effective
    • In order to set goals effectively the SMARTER principles should be applied
      • Specific: to the task, individual, sport...
      • Measurable: measured against previous performance
      • Accepted: agreed by coach and performer
      • Realistic: challenging but attainable
      • Timed: time limit to achieve goal, short, intermediate or long term goals
      • Exciting:  challenge offsets possibility of boredom
      • Recorded: progress towards goal should be written in a log to increase motivation
    • Types of goals:
      • Time-based
        • short-term
        • medium-term
        • long-term
      • Activity-based
        • performance
        • process
        • product
    • Time-based goals
      • Long-term
        • An ultimate aim
        • E.g getting selected by the county netball squad
        • Major changes in behaviour cannot be achieved immediately through the pursuit of long-term goals
        • May appear daunting causing increases in anxiety
        • A long-term goal on its own does not improve performance
      • Medium-term
        • Occur during short-term goal sequence
        • Improve access to long-term goals
        • Endorse the effectiveness of short-term goasl
      • Short-term
        • Intend to give immediate success
        • Completed in a sequence that become progressively more difficult
        • Form a link between athlete's initial ability and long-term goal of achievement
        • Can be useful in attainment of long-term goals
        • JARVIS
          • Research has found that these are the most effective goals
    • Activity-based goals
      • Product goals
        • Total focus on these can create anxiety as athlete must win to achieve goal
        • Involve defeating others
        • Concerned with winning
        • Focus on end result
        • Often externally controlled
      • Process goals
        • Concerned with improving techniques
        • Focus on bettering performance
      • Performance goals
        • Based on comparisons of current performance with previous performances
        • These are measurable
      • The most effective use of these goals is to set both performance and process goals. These give more control to individual
    • All goals are more effective in competitive sport when formally set  by a coach
    • MARTENS
      • Goals which determine exercise adherence should be set by the participant and ought to be flexible rather than fixed
    • 'Do your best goals' are less effective than measurable goals
    • Goals of 'moderate difficulty' lead to the production of best performance
      • Easy goals lead to boredom
      • Too  hard goals lead to frustration
    • BANDURA
      • Goals when set correctly give the participant empowerment and control. He says this develops a greater sense of self-efficacy
    • Product goals are not always detrimental. For every product goal there should be a number of performance and process goals

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