Global Poverty

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  • Global Poverty
    • Being unable to afford basic things, such as safe drinking water, shelter, food, sanitation and education.
      • Anyone earning >$1.90 a day, is in extreme poverty
    • World Distribution of Poverty
      • Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have the most poverty
        • 40% people in SS Africa living in poverty
      • Comparing Burkina Faso and UK
        • GDP per Capita
          • BF: 1000
          • UK: 22 800
        • HDI
          • UK: 0.928
          • BF: 0.325
        • Birth Rate
          • BF: 45
          • UK: 12
    • Indicators of Poverty
      • Composite
        • HDI (Human Development Index)
          • Rating between 1 and 0
            • Norway 0.965
            • Niger 0.311
        • PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index)
        • Better because they take more into account
      • Demographic Indicators
        • Death Rate
        • Fertility Rate
        • Life Expectancy
      • Social Indicators
        • %urban Popualtion
        • Adult Literacy Rates
        • %with access to safe drinking water
      • Economic Indicators
        • GDP per Capita
        • % population living on >$1.90 a day
        • GNP per Capita
          • Extreme values can affect it
          • Informal economy wages aren't included
    • Causes of Poverty
      • Economic Factors
        • Increase in price of grain
          • Increased farming of crops for biofuels since 2008
        • Unfair terms of trade
        • Unequal distribution of land
          • Land ownership concentrated in the hands of the rich
      • EnvironmentalFactors
        • Lack of access to fertile land, fresh water, minerals etc
        • Climate limits what crops can grow there
          • Climate Change
            • Every degree of temp. increase, grain yields decline by 5%
        • Eroded soil and desertification caused by poor farming
          • 40% of the worlds agricultural land is seriously degraded
          • By 2025, if Africa's soil degradation continues, it will only be able to feed 25% of its population
        • Natural Disasters
          • Destroy property and crops
          • Reduce access to clean water
            • Floods in Bangladesh in 1998 made 25 million homeless
              • 2 million tonnes of rice lost
          • Drought, flood, earthquakes, tropical storms
            • Floods in Bangladesh in 1998 made 25 million homeless
              • 2 million tonnes of rice lost
            • Earthquake Haiti - 70 000 still in tents 5 years later
      • All causes are complex and interrelated
      • Social and Political
        • Poor access to affordable healthcare
          • More vulnerable
        • Inadequate nutrition in childhood
        • Diseases such as HIV/AIDS and TB affect developing countries
          • Botswana
            • Economy 1/3 smaller than it should have been by 2021
              • Families need to pay for medicine, loss of income
        • Lack of democracy in poorer countries
        • Poor access to affordable education
        • Overpopulation
          • Strain on resources
        • War
          • Damage or destroy property
          • Gaza / Israel
            • 21% living in deep poverty
          • People flee their homes, many end up in refugee camps
            • In 2014, 42000 people every day had to abandon their homes
          • Syria
            • More than 11 million forced to leave home
            • 4/5 people living in poverty
    • 836 million people still in extreme poverty
    • Tackling Poverty
      • MDG's (Millennium Development Goals)
        • UN created 8 goals to reduce poverty
          • Maternal Care
          • Womens Rights
          • Universal Primary Education
          • Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
          • Global Partnerships
          • Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria etc
          • Reduce Child Mortality
          • Environmental Sustainability
        • The goals are SMART meaning they are more likely to be achieved
          • Specific Measurable  Achievable Realistic Time.bound
        • On a 15 year time scale, ending in 2015
          • Compared with data from 1990
        • Was It Successful?
          • The MDG's were more successful in some countries than others
            • Poorer countries were 'left behind' in some cases
          • Infant mortality halved between 1990 and 2013
          • HIV infections fell by 38% in 12 years
          • In a report released in 2015, many goals were either unlikely to be achieved or progress had been uneven across different regions
          • In Africa, the number of children with stunted growth due to malnutrition has increased between 1990 and 2010
          • Extreme poverty halved
      • SDG's (Sustainable Development Goals)
        • Started on 25th September 2015
          • To be achieved by 2030
        • Aims to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all
        • 17 goals, 169 targets
          • Goal 1 - No poverty
          • Goal 5 - Gender Equality
          • Goal 13 - Climate Action
          • More goals and targets mean they are less likely to be achieved
            • It isn't as focused
        • Its expected that it will cost $2-3 trillion a year to reach the goals
      • NGO's Tackling Poverty
        • Use bottom-up schemes
          • Are often small scale, but tailored to a specific area
          • Better at raising living standards in poorer areas
        • Practical Action
          • Developed 'clean delivery kit' for Bangladesh, Nepal and Egypt
            • Includes a small bar of soap, plastic sheet, string to tie off umbilical cord, pictorial instructions.
              • Caters for lots of people
              • Nepal packs contain a clean rupee, as it is considered good luck to cut the umbilical cord on a coin
            • Effective, but still small scale compared to the methods of reducing poverty
          • Developed the 'donkey ploughs' in Sudan in the Darfur region
            • Increased yield in the area
            • Made from inexpensive metal, that is widely available to those living nearby
      • Bilateral Aid
        • Money sent from the government of one rich country directly to another poorer country
        • The UK send £250 million each year to Bangladesh
          • Constructed 14000 new schools
          • Lifted more than1/2 million out of extreme poverty

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