Global Patterns of Health, Disease and Death

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  • Global Patterns of Health, Disease and Death
    • Health is better in more developed countries
      • Physical, mental and social well-being
        • And the absence of disease
      • Measured using health indicators
        • E.G. Health life expectancy (HALE)
          • No. years a newborn child can expect to live in full health without major disease
      • How healthy a country is depends on:
        • How much disease there is
        • What types of diseases there are
    • Global Morbidity Patterns
      • Different depending on the type of disease
      • Morbidity?
        • The rate of disease in a population
        • Indicators include:
          • Incidence
            • The no. of new cases in a pop during a particular time period
          • Prevalence
            • The total no. of cases in a pop at a particular time
      • Global patterns differ depending on the type of disease you're looking at:
        • Pattern of infectious diseases
          • There is ^ TB morbidity in less developed countries
            • sub-Saharan Africa
              • Reasons for ^
                • Limited healthcare
                • Lack of clean water, sanitation & health care
                • Overcrowding
          • Example: TB
          • Low TB morbidity in more developed countries
            • UK, USA & Australia
          • Passed between people
        • Pattern of non-communicable diseases
          • ^ BC morbidity is more developed countries
            • UK, USA & Australia
              • Reasons for high morbidity in of non-communicable diseases in more developed countries
                • Unhealthy lifestyle
                  • Risk increases if overweight for some diseases
                    • More common factors in developed countries
                      • More likely to suffer from diseases (cancers & heart disease)
                • Higher proportion of elderly people
                  • More likely to suffer from diseases (cancers & heart disease)
          • Example : Breast Cancer
          • Low BC morbidity in less developed areas
            • Africa & Asia
          • Can't be caught from someone else
    • Mortality Patterns depend on ...
      • Ability to treat morbidity
      • Morbidity
        • Mortality means death.
        • In general, ^ morbidity is associated with ^ mortality
      • Mortality rate = how many people die in a pop over a period of time
        • Can use mortality rates to compare global patterns of death
          • Risk of dying ^ is less DC
            • Poor access to health care
            • Malnutrition (reduces the body's ability to fight disease
    • ETM
      • Model suggests countries move through stages as they become more economically and socially developed
        • Malnutrition decreases as food availability ^
        • Clean water becomes available and sanitation improves
          • Decreases spread of diseases
        • Better access to health care & better health education
      • Some think there is also a stage 5 - re-emergence of ID due to antibiotic resistant bacteria
      • STAGE 1
        • Average Life Expectancy (ALE) is low - 50
        • ^ no. deaths -  infectious diseases
        • E.g. Angola
        • Pestilence and famine
      • STAGE 2
        • ALE starts to increase - 60
        • No. deaths from ID falls
          • Better healthcare and living conditions
        • Haiti
        • Receding pandemics
      • STAGE 4
        • Delay of degenerative diseases
        • UK
        • NCD may be prevented or their onset delayed
          • Death rate reduced by better treatement
        • ALE - 80
    • QUESTIONS
      • 3. Outline the ETM
      • 1. What is morbidity?
      • 2. Access the similarities of global patterns of obesity to that of NCD
      • 4. Describe the global pattern of life expectancy

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