- Created by: Elliemaybl
- Created on: 07-02-20 10:43
What does ‘health’ mean?
Physical, mental and social well-being
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means death, measured by death rate.
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refers to illness or poor health of a population. Indicators include:
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total number of cases of a disease in a given population at a given time divided by total population
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the rate or time at which persons become ill.
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Characteristics of deadly diseases
The most deadly diseases have high prevalence and high incidence rates- meaning that much of the population is infected and the disease is spreading quickly.
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disease is widespread in the country
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disease affects multiple countries or regions.
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What is the unhealthiest city in the UK?
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health facts about GLASGOW
Glasgow has the lowest life expectancy in the UK 4 in 10 Glaswegians were classified as either being obese or morbidly obese 29% of the population smoke
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Factors influencing risk of cancer
High alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, poor diet and smoking increases the risk of cancer and heart disease
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other factors influencing health& morbidity
Those living in poverty are likely to suffer poorer health. Occupation can influence health. E.g. stressful jobs, or working from home, being a young carer can limit education, all of which could increase the risk of mental illness.
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Epidemiological transition model
similar to DTM but looks at countries changing from high rates of IMR to high life expectancy
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Why does this transition occur?
transition occurs overtime as a country goes through modernisation from developing to developed status. This is due to advances in medical technology, disease prevention and sickness therapy and treatment.
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What are the three distinct phases of transition?
The age of pestilence (infection) and famine The age of receding pandemics The age of degenerative and man-made diseases
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Phase One (Age of infection and famine) - Life expectancy
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Phase One (Age of infection and famine) - Change in socio-economic conditions
Poor sanitation and hygiene; unreliable food supply
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Phase One (Age of infection and famine) - Causes of morbidity and morality
: Infections; nutritional deficiencies, wars, famine and epidemic outbreaks.
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Phase Two: The age of receding pandemics- Life expectancy
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Phase Two: The age of receding pandemics - Change in socio-economic conditions
Improved sanitation; better diet, advances in medicine and development of healthcare
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Phase Two: The age of receding pandemics - Causes of morbidity and morality
Reduced number of infections; increases in occurrence of strokes and heart disease
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Phase Two: The age of receding pandemics - population
Population growth is sustained and begins to rise exponentially. The discovery of penicillin in 1928 lead to widespread and dramatic declines in death rates from previously serious diseases.
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Phase Three: Age of degenerative and man-made diseases- Life expectancy
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Phase Three: Age of degenerative and man-made diseases - Change in socio-economic conditions
Increased ageing; lifestyles associated with poor diet, less activity and addictions
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Phase Three: Age of degenerative and man-made diseases- Causes of morbidity and morality
High blood pressure, obesity diabetes, smoking-related cancers, strokes, heart disease and pulmonary vascular disease.
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Phase Four: Age of delayed degenerative diseases- Life expectancy
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Phase Four: Age of delayed degenerative diseases - Change in socio-economic conditions
Reduced risk behaviours in the population; health promotion and new treatments
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Phase Four: Age of delayed degenerative diseases - Causes of morbidity and morality
Heart disease, strokes and cancers are the main causes of morality but treatment extends life. Dementia and ageing diseases start to appear more.
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Why is phase 4 needed?
as a result of increased development in healthcare.
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Seasonal Affective Disorder
Seasonal Affective Disorder is a type of depression that has a seasonal pattern. The episodes of depression usually occur at the same time each year (often winter) due to reduced exposure to sunlight from shorter days.
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60% of Glaswegian deaths are triggered by..
drugs, alcohol, suicide and violence.
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where has the lowest life expectancy in western Europe?
Scotland has the lowest life expectancy in western Europe, with Glasgow being the lowest in Scotland.
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Blue zone communities
Blue zone communities are areas where people live the longest (over 100 years). There are only 5 in the world!
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Blue zone communities factors
Public health is an important factor for these places achieving this status however GEOGRAPHY links as well. Many of these are isolated or are island communities.
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where do women live the longest in the world?
The longest living women have been found in Okinawa (blue zone)
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traits the people living in the blue zones have in common
less stress and more socializing, strong emphasis on family, a fresh natural plant based diet (eat lots of sweet potato & beans), very little red meat and they exercise daily. Living their lives with a sense of purpose was a big factor.
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AIR POLLUTION in the uk cause how many deaths?
UK air pollution linked to 40,000 early deaths a year
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What is malaria?
Malaria is a serious tropical disease spread by mosquitoes. If it isn't diagnosed and treated promptly, it can be fatal.
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How is malaria spread?
Malaria is spread by mosquitos carrying a parasite that infects a person when bitten.
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Is malaria preventable?
It is an entirely preventable disease.
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How many people get malaria?How many people die?
every year 300 million people get malaria resulting in over 1 million deaths worldwide.
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Where is malaria found? Where do the deaths occur?
Malaria is a health threat in tropical regions of the world. Around 40% of the world's population live in areas where malaria is endemic (i.e. malaria is constantly present) but 90% of deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.
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who is at risk of malaria?
infants, children under 5 years of age, pregnant women and patients with HIV/AIDS, as well as non-immune migrants, mobile populations and travellers.
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What physical factors encourage malaria carrying mosquitoes?
Temperatures must be between 15-40°C The presence of the female anopheles mosquito Humidity of 60 per cent plus Stagnant water, eg paddy fields needed to lay larvae The risk of malaria and malaria epidemics grows along with climate change
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What human factors encourage malaria carrying mosquitoes?
Houses create areas of shade for the mosquitoes to rest Global air travel contributes to the spread Settlements provide large populations for blood meals Poor sanitation in shanty towns can contribute to areas of stagnant water
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Impact of socio-economic environment on malaria prevalence
Rural and poor people are especially at risk because they are least likely to have the means to prevent and treat malaria. Children miss school because of the disease, suffer physically and intellectually, and often cannot contribute to their family
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The WHO reports that many families spend up to a _______ of their annual income for malaria treatment.
The WHO reports that many families spend up to a QUARTER of their annual income for malaria treatment.
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Other cards in this set
means death, measured by death rate.