Gleichschaltung: progress 1933-34

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  • Gleichschaltung: progress 1933-34
    • Hitlers opponents were divided, demoralised, weakened outlawed (the law against the formation of New parties' was passed in July 1933) and intimidated
      • They were intimidated by Violence 'from below' (the SA murdered about 500 people in 1933) or terror 'from above' (the Nazis could use the whoe power of the state against them)
      • By the end of 1933 over 100,000 potential opponents had been arrested (with many taken to prison camps)
      • Politicians such as Hindenburg and von papen had been outmanoeuvred by Hitler's actions
      • Where organisations were closed down, they were often replaced by Nazi alternatives. By the summer of 1934 all Hitler really had to tackle were the SA, the army and Hindenberg.
    • The SA
      • The SA alarmed many people in the Army - they feared that the SA leader Ernest Rohm intended to make the army answer to the SA. The army were appalled at this threat to their power and influence, and Hitler couldn't afford the army to turn against him. The SA appeared to be getting too powerful and Rohm had become a rival of Himmler of the **.
      • Hitler decided that the SA should be elilminated. On 30th June 1934, using the **, SA leaders including Rohm were accused of treason, arrest and executed. This was the night of the long knives
    • Hindenburg and the Army - Hindenburg died on 1st August 1934. The army did not object when Hitler absorbed the powers of the president into his own, with the title FUHRER. Hitler becomes head of the armed forces, and to show their grattitude for Hitler tackling the SA the army agreed to swear an oath to personal loyalty of Hitler.


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