Congress of Vienna
Positive (mostly long term effects)
- encouraged liberal and nationalist feelings within the pennisula
- a unified cause arose which was to eradicate Austrian power
- economic fragmentation allowed Piedmont to progress to the point where it was able to become the head of the unification
- Separatism of states: language (French, German & Latin), currency, type of rule/government, regionalism = political & economic fragmentation
- Austria gained power -> direct rule in Lombardy and Modena, called to defeat revolutionary forces
- Restoration of Pope and Papal States: repressive rule (Inquisition, corruption, public floggings and the guillotine)
Became Prime Minister of Piedmont in 1852, and by 1855 he held three positions: Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Foreign Minister. Although he was an expert in economic and financial affairs, he was rather inexperienced with foreign affairs.
- established Piedmont as a leading power by modernising and strengthening it economically, militarily and diplomatically, allowing it to lead unification.
- recognised that Austria control had to be removed from 'Italy'
- realised that 'Italy' wasn't strong enough to get rid of Austria by itself
- Arguably, he wasn't a true nationalist, Dennis Mack Smith describes him as a "clever politician"; did not see unification as a serious aim until 1859
- 1861- desire to unify northern states but exclude poorer south(Naples/Sicily)
After a chance encounter with Mazzini, Garibaldi was soon committed to a united Italy. He joined the 'Young Italy' movement and became part of Mazzini's revolutionary plans in Piedmont
- was willing to sacrifice republic for the vision of a unified Italy
- was consistently dedicated to unification and wanted to unify the whole peninsula
- was naive to think Italy would be able to defeat Austria independently
- lived in South America to prevent death sentence and was exiled to Sardinia
- was seen as dangerous revolutionary (but also a heroic freedom fighter)