Gender differences in achievement- factors

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Gender differences in achievement- factors
    • External
      • Feminism raised girl's expectations and self-esteem. Angela McRobbie- media now presents women more as assertive and independent, so girls are more ambitious
      • Family changes, e.g. more divorces, cohabitation and smaller families, means girls have better female role models
      • Changes in women's employment, e.g. Equal Pay Act and more women in professional management jobs means girls now see futures as employed, not housewives
      • Sue Sharpe- girls once prioritised love, marriage and husbands, but now look towards a future as independent in a career
      • Becky Francis- many girls she interviewed had high aspirations requiring educational qualifications
      • DCSF- boys have poorer literacy and language skills, as mums read to children, but girls stay in bedrooms while boys are encouraged to play outside
      • Mitsos and Browne- traditional men's jobs are declining leading to their identity crisis- with fewer job prospects, they try less to get better education
    • Internal
      • Equal opportunities policies- mainstream thinking. N.C. made both study similar subjects. Alison Kelly- making science compulsory helped equalise opportunities
      • Jo Bowler- schooling is more meritocratic- girls work harder so achieve more
      • Female staff are positive role models, having gone to university, etc.
      • Stephen Gerard- gap appeared in 1988-89 as GCSEs had more coursework. Girls are better at this as they are more conscientious and organised, mature earlier and concentrate longer
      • 'Kaddish subculture' - boys are more concerned about labeling. Scared of threats to masculinity, girls having masculine careers, and being labeled as gay swots and harassed
      • Tony Sewell- education is feminised, and schools value feminine qualities over male qualities
      • Boys attract more reprimands, are disciplined more harshly and feel picked on by teachers with low expectations
      • Teacher interaction with girls is more positive and work-based. Girls prefer pair/group work  where they are better at listening and cooperation. Self-fulfilling prophecy- success
      • Gary Weiner- since the 80's sexist materials have been removed from learning materials, so girls have more positive impressions about what they can do
      • Marketisation policies make girls more desirable to schools for their results, while boys are less due to behavioural difficulties and exclusion rates


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »