Gender bias

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    • universality; any underlying characteristic of humans that is capable of being applied to all.
    • Alpha bias; real underlying differences between men and women, can portray women/ men in good or bad lights
      • Freud, psychodynamic approach. Men and women go through the phallic stage differently
    • Beta Bias; theories that ignores the differences between the sexes
      • Most experimental methodologies are based around 'standardised treatment of participants' men and women are treated equally
      • Milgram
    • Androcentric; male centred research or theories
      • Milgrams research
    • Essentialism; differences between men and women are biological facts, there are fixed differences
    • Gender based research can create mis-leading assumptions about women. Failure to challenge stereotypes may lead to a scientific justification which allows people to deny women workplace opportunities men get
      • Gender bias isn't a methodological issue, it may have damaging consequences to womens lives
    • BURNS (1993)
      • Found that the majority of research on disabled women was on their sexuality, and issues surrounds pregnancy and sex, which objectifies them and fails to treat them as individuals
    • Avoiding GB according to feminists
      • women should be studied in meaning- ful real life contexts
      • women should be seen as humans and not 'deficient men'
      • diversity within women's groups should be studied rather than the comparison of men and women
      • should collect qualitative data not quantitative


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