Gametes, Reproductive Systems + Puberty

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  • Gametes, Reproductive Systems + Puberty
    • male: sperm
      • they are specialised cells formed by meiosis, followed by differentiation in the testes under the influence of testosterone
      • adapted for their function by having a haploid nucleus and a tail for swimming
    • female: ovum, (ova -pl)
      • much larger than the male gamete
      • one released every 28 days from an ovary during the menstrual cycle
    • female reproductive system
      • the female gamete - the ovum is produced in the ovaries during development of the foetus in the uterus
        • when a girl is born all the ova are present in the ovaries however they are not fully developed or mature yet
      • the female sex hormone, oestrogen is produced by the ovaries and stimulates the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics during puberty
        • includes role in the release of a mature ovum during the menstrual cycle
    • male reproductive system
      • the male gamete - the sperm are produce by the testes from the onset of puberty
      • the male sex hormone, testosterone, produced by the testes, stimulates sperm production and the development of the male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty
    • Puberty
      • during puberty sex hormones stimulate changes in the body knows at the secondary sexual characteristics which lead to sexual maturity
      • female hormone: oestrogen produced by the ovaries
      • the presence of male or female sex organs is known as the primary sexual characteristics
      • male hormone: testosterone produced by the testes
      • males
        • growth of pubic hair
        • sexual awareness and 'drive' increases
        • growth of muscles
        • development of the sexual organs - genitals enlarge
        • sperm production starts in the testes
        • voice deepens
      • females
        • development of sexual organs and breasts develop
        • menstrual cycle begins in which one ovum is released every 28 days
        • development of pelvis and hips - widen
        • menstruation begins
        • sexual awareness and 'drive' increase
        • growth of pubic hair


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