Biological approach

View mindmap
  • Biological approach and biopsychology
    • Evolution
      • Mutations in genes
      • Survival of the fittest - the most efficient genes get passed on, whilst the least die out
      • Anxiety and phobias
      • Aggression e.g. cavemen
      • IQ
        • Artificial intellligence
      • Evolutionary psychology focuses on how evolution has shaped the mind and behaviour
      • Charles Darwin 1861
      • Language
      • Memory
      • Consciousness
    • Post mortems
      • Uses the physical brain of a patient who displayed a particular behaviour when alive to suggest brain damage
      • 40 categories analysed
      • 1961 by Paul Broca
        • Used on Tan to analyse Broca's area
          • Located within the frontal lobe
          • Related to speech production
    • Genotype and phenotype
      • Genotype: genetic predisposition to develop a particular gene - the info within a gene
      • Phenotype: whether a feature, through a gene, is actually expressed
        • Influenced by other factors
    • Twin and adoption studies
      • Use correlational research to establish to what extent a trait is due to a certain gene
        • Correlational research shows the relationship between 2 variables
        • IV not manipulated = cause and effect not established
      • Twin studies: conducted on either monozygotic or fraternal (dizygotic) twins
        • Monozygotic twins share more DNA = should be a higher concordance rate
      • Adoption studies: tend to compare the biological mother and the adoptive mother to determine who has a higher concordance rate for a given behaviour
      • IQ: 76% in MZ and 60% in DZ
      • Shields and Gottesman (1972) schizophrenia study support
    • Brain damage and functional recovery
      • Functional recovery: how your body recovers its abilities and mental processes compromised AAR of brain damage
        • Mechanisms
          • Coma
          • Brain swelling
          • Axonal sprouting
          • Neuronal unmasking
          • Neurogenesis
          • Hemospheric compensation
          • Brain plasticity
            • Kempermann (1998) rat brains depending on environments
            • Maguire's (2000) taxi drivers
      • Therapy: eternal methods used to aid recovery
        • Melodic intonation therapy
        • Constraint induced movement therapy
      • Cognitive pruning: brain areas most used have strengthened connections. Those not used are deleted or weakened
    • Split brain research
      • Hemispheric lateralization: each hemisphere specialises to perform different functions
      • Left brain
        • Logic, analysis, sequencing, maths, language
      • Right brain
        • Creativity, imagination, arts, visualisation
      • Sperry (1960)
    • Neurones and synaptic transmission
      • Saltatory conduction: action potentials "jump" from node to node
      • Features of a neuron
        • Cell nucleus
        • Myelin sheath (tissue layer)
        • Cell body (soma)
        • Axon terminals
        • Cytoplasm
        • Synapse (gap)
        • Types
          • Exciatory or inhibitory
            • Exciatory: speeds up
            • Inhibitory: slows down
          • Post synaptic or pre synaptic
          • Relay
            • Brain and spine (inter)
          • Motor
            • Muscles
              • Contraction
              • Found in the CNS
          • Sensory
            • Senses
              • Some go to the brain
              • Some are used in reflect actions
        • Nodes of ranvier (gaps in myelin sheath)
        • Dentrites
      • Resting electrical potential: -70 mV
        • Action potential +40 mV
      • Neurotransmitters: chemicals which allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to another across a synapse
    • Divisions in the nervous system and the body's response to stress
      • CNS: brain and spinal chord
      • Peripheral nervous system
        • 31 pairs of spinal nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
        • 1: Sensory division (afferent)
          • Composed of sensory neurons
          • Signals from receptors to CNS
        • 1: Motor division (efferent)
          • Composed of motor neurons
          • Signals from CNS to effectors
          • 2: Somatic
            • Controls conscious activities i.e. voluntary movement
          • 2: Autonomic
            • Unconscious activities i.e. involuntary responses
            • 3: Sympathetic
              • Speeds the body up; prepares for flight or flight
            • 3: Parasympathetic
              • Calms the body down; "rest and digest" state
      • Cognitive appraisal: the senses make judgement about whether the exterior surroundings are stressful, sneidng this to the brain
      • HPA: chronic stress (long term stress)
        • Pituitary gland releases ACTH, which floats all around the body
          • Adrenal cortex picks up ACTH and releases cortisol
            • Inhibits the immune system for extra energy
          • Takes hours/days to cleanse
      • Neural pathway (SAM): acute stress, fight and flight situations
        • Single electrical pulse via the spinal chord
        • Adrenal medulla stimulates release of adrenaline
          • Increased heartbeat
          • Increased breathing in attempt to gather oxygen
          • Increased blood pressure
          • Pupil dilation
          • Temporarily increased strength
    • Endochrine system
      • Network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones
        • Travel in the blood
          • Slower than electrical communication by nerves
      • Thyroid
        • Releases thyroxine
          • Regulates basal metabollic rate
      • Adrenal medulla
        • Releases adrenaline
          • Fight or flight response and its symptoms
      • Adrenal cortex
        • Cortisol
          • Suppression of the immune system
      • Testes
        • Testosterone
          • Development of male secondary characteristics at puberty
      • Ovaries
        • Oestrogen
          • Regulation of female reproductive system, menstrual cycle and pregnancy
      • Pineal gland
        • Melatonin
          • Regulation of arousal, biological rhythms and the sleep-wale cycle
    • Biological rhythms
      • Types of rhythm
        • Infradian (less often than every 24 hours)
          • e.g. SAD
        • Circadian (every 24 hours)
          • Sleep, male sperm cycle, body temperature peak etc
            • Based on exogenous zeitgebers
              • Environmental factors that help synchronise biological rhythms with the outside world]
              • Siffre in the cave (1972)
              • Entrainment: resetting biological clocks with exogenous zeitgebers
              • Campbell and Purphy: lights on the backs of knees
          • Most common and most studied
        • Ultradian (more often than every 24 hours)
          • Respiration, brain time out, REM
      • Endogenous pacemakers
        • "Body clocks"
        • Morgan (1955)
        • Mimosa

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Fun resources:

See all Fun resources »See all Fun resources »