• Created by: Fxck_ambz
  • Created on: 19-06-17 10:23
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  • functionalist
    • Emile Durkheim : social facts
      • Durkheim founding father. influencing Merton and Parsons .
      • Social facts is money, law or language. and can be measured so objective.
      • Durkheim took the concept of external constraint and suggested this involved integration
        • too much or too little integration or regulation leads to suicide.
      • shared values- value consensus.
    • Parsons : society as a social system
      • people are able to make decisions.
      • core values create social integration
      • the central system is the social system. it must fulfill functional prerequisites.
      • three systems : 1) personality system - beliefs, goals and values 2) cultural system-core values and shared history that make a society distinct. 3) social systems-roles such a teacher/student in education or parent/child in the family
      • functional prerequisites : 1) adaptation - concerned with economic production of the environment. (economy) 2) goals-use of power through leadership -(government) 3) integration-formal and informal control - police, family, media, peers, religion      4) latency/pattern maintenance - socialization - family, media, religion.
      • Pattern variables -1) affectivity versus neutrality- do i become involved or be professional? parent child-affective  businessman - affective neutral  2) specificity versus diffuseness- one interest or common interests? shop assistant-specific marriage partner-diffuseness. 3) particularism vs universalism - school-universal home-particular
    • evaluation
      • Parsons-includes choice through pattern variables. HOWEVER, social roles determine how we should act.
      • Wrong 1979 - "oversocialised"  view of the individuals
      • can be deterministic - postmodern -  Giddens 1976- parsons explains how society reproduce itself through socialization into roles . fails to explain how individuals produce roles.
      • Parsons based on speculation rather  than empirical research
    • Merton
      • critical of parsons as he missed how people could be motivated by material interests. develops Durkheims concept of what is known as Strain theory.
      • questioned three areas : 1) functional unity.- not all parts of society are connected into a functional unit 2) universal functionalism - not all have a positive function. 3) indispensability  may be alternatives such as versions of the family
      • latent and manifest functions. -  1) a manifest function is the intended outcome - religious ceremony to bring rain   2) latent function- unintended function-
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