FOOD PRODUCTION

food production (part 2/3)

Heinman textbook only

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  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 22-01-15 20:13
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  • FOOD PRODUCTION
    • Plants
      • eating plants enables us to shorten the food chain + tf make it more efficient
        • + tf makes food production more efficient
      • carry out photosynthesis where they convert light energy into chem energy
        • which is stored as starch (carbohydrate)
      • impr. RESPONSE - FERTILISERS
      • make harvesting easier by STANDARDISING size
      • reduce loss due to DISEASE/PESTS
      • incr. SIZE of yield
      • Improve GROWTH RATE
      • FERTILISERS: minerals needed for plant growth, which are added to soil to improve its fertility
        • incr. rate of growth + size
          • NITRATES, POTASSIUM, PHOSPHATE
        • PESTICIDE: a chemical that kills pests
          • reduces loss of crops due to disease/disease causing organisms
            • can also be used on animals e.g. sheep-ticks
            • cause  EUTROPHICATION
            • too much can cause water depletion in plants-osmosis
          • FUNGICIDE:  chemical that kills fungi
            • reduce fungal growth
              • reduces loss of crops due to disease/disease causing organisms
                • can also be used on animals e.g. sheep-ticks
                • cause  EUTROPHICATION
                • too much can cause water depletion in plants-osmosis
            • ANTIBIOTICS: chemical that kills or prevents reproduction in bacteria
              • reduce spread of disease that could reduce growth/performance
        • Cheap-can be a waste product
        • doesn't cause eutrophication
    • Efficiency
      • Improve GROWTH RATE
      • incr. SIZE of yield
      • reduce loss due to DISEASE/PESTS
      • make harvesting easier by STANDARDISING size
      • impr. RESPONSE - FERTILISERS
    • SELECTIVE BREEDING
      • humans select the individual organisms that are allowed to breed according to certain characteristics
      • animals
        • 1. Isolation
          • pair with desired characteristics are selected to breed
        • 2. Artificial selection
          • offspring w/ "best" comb. of charac. are selected
        • 3. in/line breeding
          • only "best" offspring are allowed to reproduce - with other gd specimens.
            • this is carried on for several generations to cultivate desired charac.
        • plants
          • selection pressure is applied to choose which seeds to save for sowing
      • MARKING
        • section of DNA used as marker to recognise desired charac.
          • when offspring have been produced their DNA is checked for the marker
        • E.G.
          • apples bred w/ improved disease resistance, + improved texture/flavour
      • E.G.
        • chickens bred for egg production can lay over 300 eggs/yr vs unselected = 20-30/yr
  • NITRATES, POTASSIUM, PHOSPHATE

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