Flooding

The causes, effects and response to a flooding event.

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  • Flooding - When there is too much water in the river channel, forcing it to burst it banks.
    • EFFECTS
      • Social
        • People move to and from areas
        • Isolation
        • Loss of personal possessions
        • Homelessness
        • Loss of jobs
        • Injury and death
        • Spread of disease e.g. cholera
        • Force people out of an area
        • Increase in insurance lowering SOL & QOL
      • Economic
        • Insurance issues
        • Cost of clean up and recovery
        • Loss of businesses
        • Damage to farmland and agriculture
        • Damage of buildings and infrastructure
        • Cost of emergency services
        • Crops drowned
        • Aquaculture improves
      • Environmental
        • Flooding of animal habitats and ecosystems
        • Could wash away minerals in the soil (leaching)
        • Species can get killed, e.g. Rabbit burrows flooding, river bursts its banks and the fish swim out and become displaced or when the land dries the fish die
        • Pollution - oil from cars can get into the river channel
        • Land erosion and river errosion
        • Livestock killed off
        • Sedimentation
        • Migration of species
    • RESPONSE
      • Long-term
        • Plant trees - interception (30%) soft engineering
        • Barriers and dams
        • Dredging - making river channel deeper - hard engineering
        • Raise awareness - educational plan
        • Take out policies
        • Consider structures of buildings
        • Levee's
        • SUD's
      • Short-term
        • Pump out excess water
        • Emergency shelter
        • Emergency response teams
        • Aid
        • Sand bags
        • Clear up
        • Floodline
        • Prediction, Protection, Preparation
        • Warning
        • Plan in place
        • Help from NGO's/ Government/ International/ Bilateral
        • Emergency hospitals
        • Evacuation of people
    • CAUSES
      • Terrestrial
        • Permeability of the rock type has an effect on percolation. The more permeable the rock the quicker the water will get back to the river channel due to surface run-off
        • Porousity of the soil, the less clay and sandy the soil the quicker infiltrate through the soil, slowing down its journey towards the river channel
        • The gradient of the land, the steeper the slope the quicker the water gets back to the river channel, the gentler the slope, the slower it takes for the water to get back into the rivers channel
      • Climatalogical
        • Terrential rain causes surface run-off, major river discharge
        • Snow melting, higher river discharge - seasonal
        • Saturated overland flow (long periods)
        • Periods of dry conditions, baked soil, rain can't infiltrate the soil
      • Human
        • Man made drains
        • Agriculture - cows stamping on the ground, compacting the soil together
        • Deforestation - cutting down forests and vegetation means water will get back to the river channel quicker because there is no vegetation to intercept the water
        • Urbanisation

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