Flood Management Stratagies

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  • Flood Management Stragagies
    • Hard Engineering
      • Dams- huge wall built across rivers, forming a reservoir behind. Flood waters caught by the dam preventing flooding downstream
        • Turbines often built generating electricity. Steady water release allows irrigation of land below. Reservoir can be used for recreation
        • Expensive. Land flooded by reservoirs created. Affects wildlife. Sediment trapped by rivers can cause it to fail
      • Channel Straightening- meanders are removed making water flow faster, reducing flooding as water doesn't build up
        • Less time to navigate the river
        • Flooding risk greater downstream and erosion. Disturbs wildlife habitats
      • Leeves- Embankments built along rivers, so them can hold more water without overflowing
        • Allow flood plains to be built on
        • Expensive. Serve flooding if breaches
      • Diversion Spillways- Channels that take water elsewhere if water levels too high.
        • Could cause flooding where the diversion rejoins river. Overwhelmed spillways, may cause flooding in areas not used to flooding
    • Soft Engineering
      • Land use management- planning restrictions on floodplain, more water can then be infiltrated
        • Reduced impacts of flooding. Provides recreational areas.
        • Restricts development. Can't be used in already urbanised areas.
      • Wetland and riverbank conservation- wetlands store flood water slowing it down. Also planting on river banks increases interception.
        • Provided habitats. Protects surface from soil erosion.
        • Less land for farming
      • River Restoration- makes the river more natural, allowing the flood plain to flood naturally.
        • Little maintenance. Provides habitat for wildlife.
        • Local flood risk increases
      • Alteration of urban surfaces- increasing infiltration, increasing the lag time.
        • Pollutants in water are removed by soil before reaching the river
        • Expensive
    • Weather forecasts and flood warning
      • Warn people of possible floods, so people can evacuate saving lives and people can prepare reducing the damage of flooding
        • Not everyone has access to the communication systems used.       Flash floods too fast for warnings. People may ignore warnings if they've been wrong previously

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