External Factors That Effect Achievement

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  • External Factors that Effect Achievement
    • Material Deprivation
      • Refers to the correlation of low income and under-achievement.
        • 2006: only 33% of children on free school meals achieved 5 A*-C gcses.
        • Exclusion and truancy are more likely from poorer families.
        • 90% of failing schools are located in poorer areas.
      • Housing
        • Overcrowding - no room to study and high disturbance.
        • Small houses, lack of space - low exploration level.
        • Frequent moves can cause psychological damage.
        • Cold and damp housing provokes ill health which leads to time off school.
      • Diet and Health
        • Poor households have a low intake of vitamins and minerals.
          • Affects health.
          • Weakens immune system.
          • Kids prone to illness and absence.
        • Poor children have higher rates in learning disorders.
    • Cultural Capital
      • Economic Capital
        • Middle class families can afford housing in the catchment area of high rated schools.
          • No working class attend.
        • Alice Sullivan
          • Used questionnaires to assess cultural capital.
          • Found those who read complex fiction and watched documentaries developed a wider vocabulary.
      • Cultural
        • Refers to knowledge values tastes and abilities of the middle class.
          • Those without it have a disadvantage.
          • Through socialization middle class acquire  the ability to grasp theses ideas and concepts.
          • These abilities are rewarded with qualifications.
        • Middle class dominant in the education system.
          • Working class assume they're not good enough as their culture is de-valued.
          • Working class resort to truancy and leaving early.
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Intellectual Development
        • Development of thinking and reasoning skills such as the ability to solve problems and use ideas and concepts.
        • It is argued that working class families lack books and educational facilities to stimulate the  intellectual skills required for school.
        • Douglas: Found working class pupils scored lower on tests than middle class children at the age of 11 but not 5.
        • Bernsein and Young: Middle class mothers more likely to buy toys that encourage intellectual development.
      • Language
        • It is claimed working class families use deficient language, they use gestures, single words or disjointed phrases.
        • The Restricted Code
          • Limited vocabulary.
          • Short grammatically simple sentences.
          • Predictable.
          • Non-Analytic
          • Context bound.
        • The Elaborated code.
          • Wider vocabulary.
          • Long grammatical sentences.
          • Varied, communicates abstract ideas.
          • Context free
          • Explicit for the listener.
      • Attitudes and Values
        • Fatalism
          • Believe in fate.
          • Everything happens for a reason, nothing can change your position in society.
        • Collectivism
          • Value being part of a group.
          • Can;t succeed alone.
        • Immediate Gratification
          • Seeking pleasure for present time.
          • No long term goals.
        • Present Time Orientation
          • Seeing the present as the pinnacle.

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