Ethnic Differences in achievement (External Factors)

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  • Created by: charl_w
  • Created on: 16-03-15 10:37
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  • Ethnic Differences in achievement (External Factors)
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Intellectual and linguistic skills
        • Children who don't speak English at home are held back educationally.
      • Attitudes, values and family structure.
        • Fatalism and immediate gratification. Subculture which some black kids are socialised into is fatalistic. Focussed on immediate gratification, resulting in lack of motivation to succeed.
        • Lack of male role model. at home for many African Caribbean boys may encourage them to turn to anti educational 'gang culture'.
          • New Right Murray thinks (1984) argues that high rate of lone parent/lack of positive role model leads to under achievement.
        • Culture of poverty. Moynihan (1965) argues that absence of male role model in black families produces inadequately socialised kids who fail at school.
          • They then become inadequate parents themselves and perpetrate a culture of poverty.
        • Impact of slavery. As a result may have low self esteem and under achieve.
        • Asian Families.
          • Khan (1979) argues Asian families are an obstacle to achievement, especially for girls as it takes a controlling attitude towards them so do less well than Asian boys.
      • White w/c pupils.
        • Also under-achieve. Lower aspirations than other ethnic groups. Result of w/c culture, including lack of parental support.
      • Compensatory education.
        • Is an education policy that aims to counter the effects of cultural deprivation.
        • Operation head start. Established in USA to compensate children for the culture deficit because they come from deprived backgrounds.
        • Sure start in the UK aim to support the development of pre-school children in deprived areas.
    • Ethnic differences in achievement
      • Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pupils do the worst; Indians do the best.
      • White pupils are very close to the national average, but this is because they form the majority of the school population.
      • Among white and black w/c pupils, girls do better than boys, but among Asians, boys do better than girls.
      • W/C black girls do better than w/c white girls.
    • Material Deprivation and Class
      • Means lack of physical/economic resources essential for normal life in society.
      • Material deprivations of ethnic differences in achievement argue educational failure is result of material factors such as substandard housing/low income.
      • Pakistani's and Bangladeshi's are more likely to be poor than whiles.
      • For many minorities, unemployment is higher, pay is lower and overcrowding in the house is more likely.
      • The lowest achieving minority ethnic groups (Bangladeshi's) are more likely to be w/c)
    • Racism in Wider Society
      • Racial discrimination in jobs and housing.
        • Social exclusion
          • Unemployment, low pay, inadequate housing.
            • Affects children's education


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