# PSYC125 Red Topics

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• Created by: Caitlinl
• Created on: 27-05-17 18:49
What is statistical power?
The probability you find a statistically significant difference, provided it exists
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What is incomplete within subjects design?
All possible combinations; done via factorial; only usually done with 3 or less groups/conditions
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What is selected orders (Latin Square Design)?
Equally often in each position; has to be a multiple of the number of conditions; each condition precedes and follows only once
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What is a disadvantage of the Latin Square Design?
Individual differences can still be seen
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What is the complete within subjects design?
Each condition administered several times in different orders
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What is an advantage of complete within subjects design?
Balance practice effects as each participant completes all conditions
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What are the counterbalancing methods?
Block randomisation; Does all possible orders
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What is the advantage of complete within subjects design?
Practice effects diminished
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What is the ABBA Design?
Presents 1 random sequence of conditions; then present opposite; same amount of practice effects
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What are the disadvantages of the ABBA Design?
Only balances linear practice effects; no use when non-linear
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What are Linear Practice Effects?
Participants gain 1 "unit" of practice with each presentation of the condition
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What are Non-Linear Practice Effects?
Participants work out order and anticipate next
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What are the disadvantages of Non-Linear Practice Effects?
No use testing of ind diffs; time consuming; levels of IV are present an unfolding time sequence that can't be undone; can't do it when can't repeat DV; Differential Transfer Effects
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What are differential transfer effects?
The effects of the condition before affecting the condition after
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What is sensitivity?
Detecting small effect of IV on DV
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What is the floor effect?
Low scores because the task is too hard (no room for variation)
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What is the ceiling effect?
High scores because the task is too easy (no room for variation)
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What is the solution to overcoming the floor/ceiling effect?
Not make the tasks too hard or too easy
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What do you have to consider in regards to the sample?
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What are the 3 criteria for internal validity?
Show co-variation/correlation; show time/order relationship; eliminate all other possible causes
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What are the 5 key threats to internal validity?
Test-intact groups; order/practice/fatigue; differential transfer effects; extraneous variables; unequal loss across groups
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What are in tact groups?
Between subjects design
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How to practice/order/fatigue effects occur?
Within subjects designs; (practice get better, fatigue get worse)
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How do we balance these effects?
Counterbalancing
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What are extraneous variables?
Cause variation not related to manipulation; e.g. room, temperature, experimenter etc
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What is unequal loss across groups?
Ppts dropping out of one condition significantly more than the other (only in between subjects design)
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What are participant expectancy effects?
E.g. cannabis and memory - expect to do worse, so do worse
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How do you get over participant expectancy effects?
Use a placebo
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What are experimenter expectancy effects?
Experimenter affects the outcome of the experiment
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What is a study highlighting experimenter expectancy effects?
Rosenthal and Fode (1963)
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What did Rosenthal and Fode do?
Altered the lighting in a work place to see if it affected work efficiency, workers copped on and whenever it changed worked harder, as knew they were being observed
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How do you get around this?
Double-blind trials
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What is external validity
Applying the findings to real life
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What is convergent validity?
The multi-modal approach; conduct controlled experiments and a naturalistic study, if you come to the same conclusions you have convergent val
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What are the assumptions for t-tests?
Parametricity of the DV and it meets parametric assumptions
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How are these aims achieved?
Interval/ratio data (only ordinal if have a massive sample); report mean and SDs, have 95% confidence intervals
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What do you then do to work it out?
Multiply the standard error by +/- 1.96 to give you 95% confidence levels
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What happens if the sample mean is similar (small difference)?
Same population= selected similar groups, different population = similar means
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When can t tests be used?
Sampling different populations with similar means
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What happens when sample means are dissimilar (or a large difference?)
Same population and randomly selected extremes; different populations with different means
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What is the sample Standard Deviation?
Standard Error comparing sample means (mean difference divided by standard error)
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What are the main features of t tests?
Powerful test of difference; divide mean of difference by standard deviation of difference of scores; same as linear regression models
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Should we have variance?
Yes and we can have it for variety of reasons
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What are these 2 reasons?
Our model or anything else
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What is total variance?
Model variance + error variance
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What is manipulation variance?
How far the scores are from the grand mean
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What is error variance?
How individual scores differ from the group mean
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What do you need to know for the anatomy of equations?
Total sum of squares; manipulation sum of squares; error sum of squares and degrees of freedom
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How do you report an unrelated ANOVA?
An unrelated one way ANOVA found a (significant) effect of X on Y, F(critical value, df) = _, P(
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What do we not know when conducted an ANOVA?
If there is an overall effect
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By conducting post-hoc analysis (planned comparisons)
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What do we want to try and find out?
If comparing a placebo has significant differences; (sig dif between control and any intake); compare high dose to other level
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What are the features of post-hoc analysis?
No a priori assumptions; Compare all groups to each other; decide which tests to use after initial analysis
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What are the features of planned comparisons?
A priori assumptions; few meaningful comparisons; decide on tests before initial analysis
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What are the features of Scheffe's test?
All possible comparisons
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How do you conduct Scheffe's test?
Compare averages of groups A & B to averages of groups C, D and E
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What are the features of pairwise comparisons?
All possible pairwise comparisons
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How do you conduct Pairwise comparisons?
Compare the mean of every group with the mean of every group with the mean of every other group
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What is Dunnett's test?
All groups compared with a control group and compare all groups to this, not each other
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What is Bonferroni's test (NOT CORRECTION)
Compare specific groups based on theoretical comparisons e.g. only comparing A and B or B and C
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What should planned comparisons always be?
Theoretically sound!!
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What do you have to remember about planned comparisons?
The more comparisons, the higher the chance of making a type 1 error
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How do you apply Bonferroni's correction?
Divide the accepted level of significance (P
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Do less planned comparisons have more or less statistical power than loads of unplanned post hoc tests
More as controlling for type 1 errors
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What can Student Newman Keuls test?
All comparisons
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How does SNK work?
Works on difference sums (means); find the largest difference between mean groups and work down
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What happens next?
Have all possible differences between all group means (observed values); difference should be greater than critical value
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What parameters should you use?
Degrees of freedom as given in main ANOVA
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What are the assumptions of an ANOVA?
Interval/ratio level data; normally distributed; homogeneity of variance; homoscedasticity and sphericity
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What are the stoic principles underlying qualitative research?
Aristotle's tabula rasa - born a blank slate; knowledge enters through the senses; truth obtained through reason
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What are the sophist principles underlying qualitative research?
No such thing as absolute truth; knowledge is individual opinion; truth obtained via discourse
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What are the empiricist principles underlying qualitative research?
John Locke - knowledge is experience vis the senses; experimentation & observation; scientific approach to study of the mind
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What are the Anthony Ashley-Cooper's principles underlying qualitative research?
Embrace the social; look at behaviour in a socio-historical context; scientific truth comes from discourse
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What are the Wundt's principles underlying qualitative research
Founder of modern psychology; started qualitative research; incorporated culture, expression, beliefs, morality and imagination
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What are the William James' principles underlying qualitative research?
Radical empiricism; objective analysis; mind, experiences and nature are inseperable
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What are the scientific empiricist views?
Quantifying individual experiences; atomist point of view (single our brain functions)
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How can change occur?
War, unethical experiments, feminism and increased world funding
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What is the post-modernist view of qualitative research?
No single clear window into the mind; filters affect behaviour; wide range of methologies; ongoing debate
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What are the features of qualitative research?
Qual data, natural, focus on meaning, cultural patterns; description; idealistic
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What are the contrasting features of quantitative research?
Quant data; artificial; focuses on behaviour; seeks scientific laws; prediction; realistic
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What are the advantages of quantitative research?
Purity of data and control; More order (theory building); reliable, valid and generalisable; strong roots in behaviourism
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What are the disadvantages of quantitative research?
Stripped of context; meaning and purpose detached; Responses don't help us understand the individual; specific contexts; limited analysis
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What are the advantages of qualitative research?
Rich in detail; examine underlying structures of data; not as strict interpretations; context and meaning included
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Why is it useful to combine qual and quant research?
Useful 1st step in research; both unobtrusive and obtrusive
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What is unobtrusive data collection?
No contact/influence on data collected; non-reactive; data usually exists before research; greater value in some fields (criminality e.g.)
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What is acretion?
Build up of physical traces
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What are some examples of acretion?
Litter, graffiti; latrinalism; art
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What is does erosion indicate?
Desire lines; flaws in public space designs; social relationships; wear on flooring; wear and tear of a book (indicating popularity)
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What are the advantages of erosion?
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What are the disadvantages of erosion?
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What does archival data consist of?
Running records (databases); doctors records; police records
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What are examples of episodic/discontinous/personal records?
Police interviews; witness statements; company/institution records; media; diaries
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What is the disadvantage of episodic records
Bias - Selective deposit; selective addition/omission; selective survival
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What is simple observation?
Unobserved, passive, unobtrusive role; no control over behaviour
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What techniques are used in simple observation?
Notes, audio recording; video recording; checklists
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What are the 5 types of simple observation according to Lee, 2000?
Exterior physical signs; expressive movements; physical movement; in-situ conversations and time related behaviour
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What are the advantages of simple observation?
Can't be realistically/ethically reproduced in a lab; chronology of events; accurate permanent records (can be reanalysed in the future)
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What are the disadvantages of simple observation?
External validity - subjective analysis; selective recordings; assumptions about human behaviour made - social rules
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What are the challenges of unobtrusive data collection?
Not true research data; recorded for other reasons; low quality and validity; ethical breaches; hard to get access; bias; doesn't tell us why
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What strategies can be employed to deal with this?
Consider data origins; standardise recording procedures; be alert to bias; corroboration of different sources; take care in drawing inferences
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What are the features of obtrusive data collection?
Generated for current research; take the form of field studies, focus groups; researcher involved with participants
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What is discourse analysis?
How language constructs social reality and social contact
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What is included?
All forms of texts and speech
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What is performative discourse?
Produces phenomena, it regulates and constrains
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What is functional discourse?
Provides a means to an end - sophist discourse - social structure
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What is incomplete within subjects design?

#### Back

All possible combinations; done via factorial; only usually done with 3 or less groups/conditions

### Card 3

#### Front

What is selected orders (Latin Square Design)?

### Card 4

#### Front

What is a disadvantage of the Latin Square Design?

### Card 5

#### Front

What is the complete within subjects design?