Psyc. B - Week 3

What is personality?
Distinctive ways of thinking, feeling and acting that characterise a person's responses to life situations
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What is the id?
The innermost core of personality, present at birth and source of psychic energy
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What is the pleasure principle?
Seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations and environmental realities
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What is the reality principle?
Testing reality to decide when and under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs
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What is the superego?
The moral arm of the personality
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What are mechanisms?
Unconscious mental operations that deny or distort reality
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What is repression?
The go uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety-arousing memories, feelings and impulses from entering consciousness
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What is sublimation?
Taboo impulses may even be channelled into socially desirable and admirable behaviours, completely masking the sinister underlying impulses
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What are psychosexual stages?
Stages during which the id's pleasure seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body
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What is fixation?
A state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme
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What is regression?
A psychological retreat to an earlier psychosexual stage
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What is the Oedipus complex?
Conflictual situation in involving love for the mother and hostility toward the father
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What is Electra complex?
The female counterpart of the Oedipus complex
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What are Neoanalytic theorist?
Psychoanalyst who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud's thinking and developed their own theories
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What is personal unconscious?
Based on their life experiences
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What is the collective unconscious?
Consists of memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race
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What are archetypes?
Inherited tendencies to interpret experiences in certain ways
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What are object relations theories?
Focus on the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experiences with caregivers
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What is phenomenology?
Emphasis on the primacy of immediate experience
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What is a personal construct?
Cognitive categories into which they sort the people and events in their lives
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What is a rep test?
To assess individuals personal construct systems
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What is self-actualisation?
The highest realisation of human potential
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What is the self?
AN organised, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself
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What is self-consistency?
An absence of conflict among self-perceptions
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What is congruence?
Consistency between self-perceptions and experience
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What is the need for positive regard?
For acceptance, sympathy and love from others
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What is unconditional positive regard?
Communicates that the person is inherently worthy of love, regardless of accomplishment
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What is the need for positive self-regard?
The desire to feel good about ourselves
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What are conditions of worth?
Dictate the circumstances under which we approve or disapprove of oursleves
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What is a fully functioning person?
Individuals who were close to achieving self-actualisation
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What is self esteem?
How positively or negatively we feel about oursleves
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What is self-enhancement?
a strong and pervasive tendency to gain and preserve a positive self-image
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What is self-verification?
Refers to this need to confirm the self-concept
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What are personality traits?
Relatively stable cognitive, emotional and behavioural characteristics
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What is factor analysis?
Used to identify clusters of behaviours that are highly correlated with one another but not with behaviours in other clusters
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What is self monitoring?
Very attentive to situational cues and adapt their behaviour to what they think would be most appropriate
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What is temperament?
Refers to individual differences in emotional and behaviourial styles that appear so early in life, assumed to have a biological basis
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What is social-cognitive theories?
Combine the behavioural and cognitive perspectives into an approach to personality that stresses the interaction of a thinking human with a social environment
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What are reciprocal determinism?
The person, the person's behaviour and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of two-way causal links
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What is an internal-external locus of control?
Expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives
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What is self-efficacy?
Their beliefs concerning their ability to perform the behaviours needed to achieve desired outcomes
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What is CAPS cognitive affective personality systems?
An organised system of five personality variables that interact continuously with one another and with the environment, generating distinctive patterns of behaviour
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What are behaviour-outcome expectancies?
Represents the 'if then' links between alternative behaviours and possible outcomes
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What are self-regulation processes?
Refer to internal, self-administered rewards and punnishments
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What are behaviour signatures?
Consistent ways of responding in particular classes of situations
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What are gender schemas?
Organised mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for males and females
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What are structured interviews?
Contain a set of specific questions that are administered to everyparticipant
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What is behavioural assessment?
Psychologists devise an explict coding system that contains the behavioural categories on interest
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What is remote behaviour sampling?
Researchers and clinicians can collect self-reported samples of behaviour from respondants as they live their daily lives
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What is the rational theoretical approach?
Items are based on the theorists conception of the personality trait to be measured
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What is the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI)?
Measures the big five personality traits of openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism
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What is the empirical approach?
Which terms are chosen not because their content seems relevant to the trait on rational grounds, but because each item has been answered differently by groups of people (eg. introverts/extroverts) known to differ in personality traits
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What is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)?
A widely used personality test developed according to the empirical approach
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What are projective tests?
Presents subjects with ambiguous stimuli and ask for some interpretations of them
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What is the Rorschach test?
Consist of 10 inkblots
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What is the Thematic Apperception test?
Consists of a series of pictures derived from paintings, drawings and magazine illustrations
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the id?


The innermost core of personality, present at birth and source of psychic energy

Card 3


What is the pleasure principle?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the reality principle?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the superego?


Preview of the front of card 5
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