Psychopathology. Explanations for Schizophrenia. PSYA4.

Explanations of schizophrenia. From Biological, Psychological, Cognitive to Diathesis stress model.

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  • EXPLANATIONS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
    • BIOLOGICAL
      • BIOCHEMICAL factors
        • SEEMAN
          • 60 - 100% increase in DOPAMINE receptors in brains of schizo patients POST-MORTEM
            • WONG et al
              • PET scans show 2-fold increase of density of DOPAMINE receptors in schizo patients.
                • Anti-psychotic drugs work by BINDING DOPAMINE receptors.
                  • However Phenothiazines don't work on everyone. Better on POSITIVE symptoms
                • Wong's results have never been replicated
            • Post mortem examination is often of people going through DRUG THERAPY so could be the cause
      • ADOPTION studies
        • HESTON
          • 47 adults born to Schizo mothers but separated at birth. Compared with normal adoptees.
            • Group with schizo mothers 5 times more likely to develop the disease
              • Limited by SELECTIVE PLACEMENT however shows altho environment does effect, its first and foremost biological.
      • NEUROANATOMICAL factors
        • Structural abnormalities in the brain
          • BAUCHSBAUM
            • FRONTAL LOBES smaller in schizo patients.
          • ANDREASON
            • Ventricles larger in schizo patients.
          • JERNIGAN et al
            • Abnormalities in LIMBIC SYSTEM
      • TWIN studies
        • SHEILDS
          • Reviewed twin study data . Found concordance rate: DZ = 10% MZ = 50%
            • Shows genes not wholly responsible or rate would've been  100%
              • Small sample size. Diff diagnostic criteria. Concordance rates calculated differently
      • PREGNANCY factors
        • WINTER BIRTHS
          • overwhelmingly high proportion of schizophrenics born in winter
        • VIRAL HYPOTHESIS
          • MEDNICK et al
            • link with mother being infected with INFLUENZA A. VIRUS may cause DEGENERATION of brain
        • BIRTH COMPLICATIONS
          • DALMAN et al
            • positive correlation with birth complications and later development of schizo
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL
      • FAMILY MODELS
        • Dysfuntional families may play a role in schizophrenia
        • BATESON et al
          • Parent gives care in a HOSTILE WAY may cause child to SELF/DOUBT and WITHDRAW
            • blaming families is UNHELPFUL. could be dealing with schizo causes the family to become dysfunctional
        • BROWN
          • patients that return to homes with high EXPRESSED EMOTIONS more likely to relapse
            • EE assessed  by taping a relative and rating FREQUENCY of CRITICAL COMMENTS
              • HIGH INDICATOR of COURSE OF DISORDER. CORRELATION so no cause and effect. Family environment does have a role.
    • COGNITIVE
      • HELMSLEY
        • FAILURE TO ACTIVATE SCHEMAS
          • schizo arises from DISCONNECTION between STORED KNOWLEDGE (scehmas) and CURRENT SENSORY INPUT
            • so internal events are mis-interpreted as external stimuli resulting in Hallucinations
              • caused by ABNORMALITIES in HIPPOCAMPUS
              • no strong evidence for support
      • FIRTH
        • FAULTY COGNITIVE PROCESS
          • Schizo patients unable to distinguish between ACTIONS driven by EXTERNAL FORCES and those driven by INTERNAL INTENTIONS
            • Filter between CONSCIOUS processing and PRE-CONSCIOUS processing  breaks down so INCOSEQUENTIONAL info is passed into CONSCIOUS AWARENESS.
              • filter is underpinned by IRREGULARITY in DOPAMINE receptors.
              • Fails to take into account ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS. NO universal support.
    • DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL
      • individual INHERITS SUSCEPTIBILITY to schizo which is triggered by STRESSFUL EVENTS.
        • Nature-Nurture argument that's MULTI-FACTORAL and less reductionist than the other theories.
  • ALL CORRELATION STUDIES. if hypothesis were true MZ rate would be higher. common birth complications often don't lead to schizo
    • link with mother being infected with INFLUENZA A. VIRUS may cause DEGENERATION of brain
    • positive correlation with birth complications and later development of schizo
    • overwhelmingly high proportion of schizophrenics born in winter

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