Evaporation and Condensation

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  • Evaporation and Condensation
    • When a liquid evaporates particles escape from its surface to become a gas
    • When a gas condenses particles slow down and come close enough together to form a liquid
    • Evaporation from a beaker
      • Particles near the surface are travelling fast enough and in the right direction overcome the attractive force of other water particles and escape from the surface
      • The fastest particles are more likely to escape leaving the slower ones behind
      • The lower the average kinetic energy of the remaining particles causes the temperature of water to fall
    • Condensation onto glass window
      • Water vapour comes into contact with the cold glass surface
      • The gas particles lose kinetic energy to the glass and slow down
      • The attractive forces between the gas particles are then strong enough to pull them closer together until they form a liquid
      • Results in droplets of condensation forming on the surface of the glass which becomes slightly warmer
    • Factors affecting the rate of evaporation
      • Increasing the temperature gives particles more energy
      • Increasing the surface area brings more particles near to the surface to escape
      • Increasing the amount of air flow removes particles that have already evaporated - lowers the concentration of particles, increasing evaporation rate
      • Less dense liquids have higher evaporation rates as particles are further apart so forces of attraction between them are weaker
    • Factors affecting rate of condensation
      • Lowering the temperature reduces the amount of energy causing particles to slow down so attractive forces join together forming a liquid
      • Decreasing the amount of airflow increases the concentration of particles brining them closer together - attractive forces are the causing more condensation


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