AQA A2 Sociology- Ethnicity and Crime

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  • Created by: EmK123
  • Created on: 11-06-16 12:04
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  • Ethnicity and Crime
    • Stats
      • Official stats
        • Blacks 7x more likely to be stopped and searched and 5x more likely to be in prison.
      • Victim surveys
        • Disclose whether you have been a victim of crime- asks for ethnicity
          • Mugging is more likely to be black
      • Self-report studies
        • Asks to disclose whether you have committed a crime
          • Graham and Bowling- blacks and whites have same rates of offending
    • Racism and CJS
      • Policing
        • Phillips and Bowling- oppressive policing in minority communities- mass stops and searches, raids, surveillance ect.
          • Note that minorities think they are over policed and under protected.
      • Stops and searches
        • Blacks-7x, Asians 3x  more likely to be stopped and searches.
        • Explained by: this does reflect different in rates of offending. racist police or Demographic reasons- ethnic minorities are over represented in groups more likely to be stopped.
      • Court
        • CPS decide which cases to prosecute and are more likely to drop cases against ethnic minorities. Minorities more likely to elect a crown court trial due to their mistrust of magistrates.
      • Prison
        • Hood- Blacks 5% more likely to be jailed. Blacks less likely to be granted bail.
    • Left Realism
      • Lea and Young
        • Stats reflect the real difference in levels of offending
        • Crime is the product of relative deprivation, subcultures and marginalisation which is promoted by the media.
        • Racist polcing = unjustified criminalisation of minorities.
          • Racist policing can't explain higher conviction rates of blacks than Asians- police would have to be selectively racist- racism isn't the only cause.
    • Neo-Marxism
      • Gilroy: Black criminality is a myth created by racist stereotypes. CJS acts on these stereotypes = greater rates of offending.
      • Hall: Moral panics blamed blacks for rise in mugging to cover up the capitalist crisis.
        • Eval: Downes and Rock: he says crime is due to racis policing and unemployment- can't have it both ways. Moral panics can be explained by capitalist analysis- swine flu.
        • Eval: Young-there is no evidence the public panicked over the mugging or linked it to blacks.
    • Victimisation
      • Risk of being a victim differs between ethnic groups (Black 27% Asians 25% Whites 24%) But it could also be due to other factors (age, gender and unemployment.)
      • Samson and Phillips- Racist victimisation is ongoing (repeated)
  • Criminality = political resistance- Most minorities originate in British colonies where their anti-colonial struggles taught them to resist which are criminalised by the state.
    • Criticism- it does't explain black on black crime.
    • Neo-Marxism
      • Gilroy: Black criminality is a myth created by racist stereotypes. CJS acts on these stereotypes = greater rates of offending.
      • Hall: Moral panics blamed blacks for rise in mugging to cover up the capitalist crisis.
        • Eval: Downes and Rock: he says crime is due to racis policing and unemployment- can't have it both ways. Moral panics can be explained by capitalist analysis- swine flu.
        • Eval: Young-there is no evidence the public panicked over the mugging or linked it to blacks.

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