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GREEN CRIME 1

crime against the environment.

BECK: global risk society- increase of technology has created more risks.

TRADITIONAL CRIMINOLOGY: regulations&laws, focuses on green crime which has broken environmental law.

GREEN CRIMONOLOGY: Any action that harms the physical environemnt or humans or animals within it.

MARXISM: Law enforcement is selecitve- green crime is an exmaple of this. green crime is not included in crimincal acts- ruling class shape the law to suit them.

ANTHROPOCENTRIC VIEW: humans have the right to dominate nature

ECOCENTRIC VIEW: humans&environement depend on each other, environement harm hurts humans aswell.

PRIMARY GREEN CRIMES:  resulting from directly destruction&degradation of earths resources.

SECONDARY CRIME: crime that results from breaking envieromental protection laws and rules.

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STATE CRIME

illegal or devainat activities carried out by state agencies eg: genocide/war crimes/torture. (RC crimes)

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crime control/prevention/punishment

structural approach: society causes crime(subcultures/strain theroy)/situational crime preventionzero tolerance/punishment/ASBO's.

SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION:making it harder to commit crimes. CCTV-WHY? so the costs of crime outweighs the benefits of crime.

punishment:

durkeim funt: maintains socila solidarity&reinforces shared values.

marx: maintain social order&maintian position of ruling class.

prison=

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victims and crime 1

  • media representation of criminals sis wrong. most at risk of crime are young men NOT elderly.

GENDER.

  • men more likely than women (street crime)
  • women victims of ****/domestic violence...

ETHINICITY:

  • ethnic minorities= more likely to be victims of crime than whites
  • racist incidents- ongoing over time. psychological impacts

AGE:

  • most at risk of murder- those under 1.
  • young people most likelty to be robbed- always have valuables and phones out.
  • old at risk of abuse (nursing homes)
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victims and crime 2

CLASS:

  • poor most likely to be victims of crime
  • homeless 12x more liekly to have been victims

positivists victimology:

  • patterns in victimisation
  • interpersonal crimes of violence
  • identify victimes who have contrubuted to own victimsation: displaying wealth. #

critical victimology: conflict. marx and fem

  • structual factors: patriarchy/poverty
  • labels

IMPACT OF VICTIMISATION:

  • physicval and emotional impacts for victim and victims family
  • ethinic minority/young and homeless= feel under protected from police
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positivists

  • scientific methods
  • aim: form laws about society that can predict behaviour
  • structure of society determines indivudual behaviour
  • macro
  • durkehim (suicide study)
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intepretivists

  • not scientific
  • aim; discover meaning and make sense of world
  • action: indivusdlas have free will and choose how they wanna act
  • qualitative, subjective, valid
  • micro
  • douglas and atkinson (suicide)
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suicide

positivist: quantitative secondary data eg, stats= social facts. objective/reliable

interpretivists: qualitative, unstructured interviews=valid and uncobver meanings and use verstehen

durkheims study of suicide:

  • individual behaviour is determined by society
  • chose suicide to prove that individual action is determined by society and is an indivuudal act  and becasue stats are social facts
  • used comparitive method- compared one countries suicide rates with another. method= reliable and scientific
  • suciide rates are different in each company and vary among groups such as unmarrioed/married/young/old.
  • society cintrols indivudlas: intergration (socialisatio, learn norms and values, fam and religion) regualtion (collective consicience- giving people goals to aim for)
  • 4 types of suicide: EGOISITC : lack of integratrion. ANOMIC: lack of regualtion. ALTRUISTIC: over integration. FATALISTIC: over regualtion.
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