GREEN CRIME 1
crime against the environment.
BECK: global risk society- increase of technology has created more risks.
TRADITIONAL CRIMINOLOGY: regulations&laws, focuses on green crime which has broken environmental law.
GREEN CRIMONOLOGY: Any action that harms the physical environemnt or humans or animals within it.
MARXISM: Law enforcement is selecitve- green crime is an exmaple of this. green crime is not included in crimincal acts- ruling class shape the law to suit them.
ANTHROPOCENTRIC VIEW: humans have the right to dominate nature
ECOCENTRIC VIEW: humans&environement depend on each other, environement harm hurts humans aswell.
PRIMARY GREEN CRIMES: resulting from directly destruction°radation of earths resources.
SECONDARY CRIME: crime that results from breaking envieromental protection laws and rules.
illegal or devainat activities carried out by state agencies eg: genocide/war crimes/torture. (RC crimes)
structural approach: society causes crime(subcultures/strain theroy)/situational crime preventionzero tolerance/punishment/ASBO's.
SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION:making it harder to commit crimes. CCTV-WHY? so the costs of crime outweighs the benefits of crime.
durkeim funt: maintains socila solidarity&reinforces shared values.
marx: maintain social order&maintian position of ruling class.
victims and crime 1
- media representation of criminals sis wrong. most at risk of crime are young men NOT elderly.
- men more likely than women (street crime)
- women victims of ****/domestic violence...
- ethnic minorities= more likely to be victims of crime than whites
- racist incidents- ongoing over time. psychological impacts
- most at risk of murder- those under 1.
- young people most likelty to be robbed- always have valuables and phones out.
- old at risk of abuse (nursing homes)
victims and crime 2
- poor most likely to be victims of crime
- homeless 12x more liekly to have been victims
- patterns in victimisation
- interpersonal crimes of violence
- identify victimes who have contrubuted to own victimsation: displaying wealth. #
critical victimology: conflict. marx and fem
- structual factors: patriarchy/poverty
IMPACT OF VICTIMISATION:
- physicval and emotional impacts for victim and victims family
- ethinic minority/young and homeless= feel under protected from police
- scientific methods
- aim: form laws about society that can predict behaviour
- structure of society determines indivudual behaviour
- durkehim (suicide study)
- not scientific
- aim; discover meaning and make sense of world
- action: indivusdlas have free will and choose how they wanna act
- qualitative, subjective, valid
- douglas and atkinson (suicide)
positivist: quantitative secondary data eg, stats= social facts. objective/reliable
interpretivists: qualitative, unstructured interviews=valid and uncobver meanings and use verstehen
durkheims study of suicide:
- individual behaviour is determined by society
- chose suicide to prove that individual action is determined by society and is an indivuudal act and becasue stats are social facts
- used comparitive method- compared one countries suicide rates with another. method= reliable and scientific
- suciide rates are different in each company and vary among groups such as unmarrioed/married/young/old.
- society cintrols indivudlas: intergration (socialisatio, learn norms and values, fam and religion) regualtion (collective consicience- giving people goals to aim for)
- 4 types of suicide: EGOISITC : lack of integratrion. ANOMIC: lack of regualtion. ALTRUISTIC: over integration. FATALISTIC: over regualtion.