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  • ENSO (El Nino, La Nina)
    • El Nino
      • Trade winds may slacken or reverse from WEST to EAST.
      • PERU has a sea level rise of 30cm and 6-8* sea temperature rise.
      • water in AUSTRALIA and INDONESIA is cooler
      • AUSTRALIA experiences droughts
    • La Nina
      • really strong trade winds blowing EAST to WEST.
      • Cold upwelling of water in PERU.
      • Heavy rain in SOUTH EAST ASIA
      • Sea level is 1m higher in PHILIPPINESand INDONESIA
      • Drought in PERU and CHILE.
    • Normal Year
      • Trade winds blow EAST to WEST along the equator
      • Cold upwelling of water in PERU.
      • Trade winds pressure increases sea levels in AUSTRALIA by 50cm.
      • Sea is 8*C warmer in Australasia
      • global water supplies are affected by ENSO cycles.
        • greater evaporation from surface waters and reservoirs in summer (& spring).
        • greater rates of evapo-transpiration leads to desiccation of forest stores
        • unreliable patterns of rainfall (unpredictable monsoons).
        • more frequent cyclone events threaten water supplies intermittently
        • increased intensity and frequency of droughts - affects agriculturalists
        • depleted aquifers affects groundwater
        • decreased rainfall
        • loss of snow and glaciers as a store threatens mountainous communities


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