Water Cycle and Water Insecurity

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  • Water Cycle and Water Insecurity
    • Hydro-logical Cycle
      • Global
        • Closed System of inputs, outputs, stores and flows and it is driven by GPE and Solar energy
        • 97.5% ocean, 2.5% fresh water (68.7% glacial, 30.1% groundwater, 0.8% permafrost, 0.4% surface and atmospheric)
      • Local
        • Open system within the global system, specific to a local place.
    • Rainfall
      • Orographic (relief)
        • warm moist air is forced to rise up and cools, over high ground producing heavy rain
      • Frontal
        • Fronts formed as part of a low pressure area when warm moist air is forced to rise over cold air = rain along the front
      • Convectional
        • High temperatures rainfall is intense and associated with electrical storms and thunder
    • Processes
      • INPUTS
        • Rainfall, precipitation in any form
      • PROCESSES
        • Interception, temporary storage as water is captured by Plants
        • Infiltration, water entering the top soil
        • Surface run  off, flow of water over land when it is saturated
        • Throughflow, water seeping laterally through soil
        • Percolation, downward seeping of water through rock under gravity
      • OUTPUTS
        • Channel flow, the volume of water flowing within a river channel (discharge)
        • Transpiration, water taken in by plants and transpired to the leaf surface
        • Evaporation, the conversion of water to vapour
    • Drainage Basin
      • Physical factors
        • Snow Capped Peaks
          • Steep Slopes
            • Permeable Soils and Rock
              • Rural Land
                • Urban Areas
                  • Impermeable Rock and Soil
                    • Forested Slopes
                      • Large Drainage Basin
                        • Reserviors
      • Human Impacts
        • Over Abstraction
          • Deforestation
            • Urbanisation
              • Reserviors
                • Change in Land use
    • Water Budget the balance between inputs and outputs and their impacts on the soil water availability influenced by climate type
      • P=Q+E+/-S
        • Precipitation Q-Discharge E-potential evapotranspiration S-Soil Moisture
    • River Regimes, - Simple Rhone, Complex, Mississippi, Nile
    • Storm Hydro-graph
    • Drought
      • Meteorological, Agricultural, Hydrological, Economic
      • Brazil 2014-15, high pressure diverted the rain, high charge to drill new wells, illegal wells caused water contamination
    • Surplus
      • Carlisle Flood, steep gradient, Rock Ig./Met, orographic Rainfall, McVities factory, loss of homes, £6 bill  infrastructure Claim
    • ENSO/La Nina Conditions
    • Water Stress below 1700m3 per person
      • Water Scarcity, below 1000m3 per person
        • Water Poverty Index, water resources, access to water, handling capacity, use of water, environmental indicators
    • The River Nile, Conflicts as Run through, Sudan, Egypt and Ethiopia
    • Managing Water Supplies
      • China 3 Georges Dam
        • Israel Sustainable, Virtual water Irrigation Desalination
          • Saudi Arabia, Restoring Aquifiers
            • Singapore, holistic management

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