English Language politeness theories

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  • English Language Politeness Theories
    • Paul Grice politeness maxims
      • Maxim of Quantity (as much as necessary)
      • Maxim of Quality (as truthful as possible)
      • Maxim of Relevance (as specific as possible)
      • Maxim of Manner (as clear as possible)
    • Brown and Levinson's theory
      • Positive (ones self esteem)  and negative (ones freedom to act) face
      • Face Threatening Act (FTA) : an act that damages the 'face' of a listener
      • Politeness Strategies (from rude to polite): bald-on-record, positive politeness, negative politeness, off record politeness
    • Giles Accommodation theory
      • Becomes a tool to emphasise group distinctiveness
      • Convergence - moving our speech closer to that of the other person
        • Decreases social distance
      • Divergence - peoples speech patterns move apart
        • Emphasises social differences
    • Leech Tact Maxims
      • Tact
        • minimise beliefs at cost to other; maximise beliefs that imply benefit
      • Generosity
        • Minimize benefit to self; maximise cost to self
      • Approbation
        • Minimise criticism; maximise approval of other
      • Modesty
        • minimize praise of self; maximise dispraise of self
      • Agreement
        • Minimise disagreement; maximise agreement with other
      • Sympathy
        • minimize antipathy; maximise sympathy

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