Energy and biomass in food chains

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  • Energy and biomass in food chains
    • Pyramids
      • Biomass
        • always get smaller as you get to the top of the pyramid
        • Biomass means the mass of the organism, - water
      • Number
    • energy loss in food chains
      • not all energy is passed along
        • some is lost through movement, respiration, growth and excretion
        • not all of the organism is digested
      • photosynthesis, light energy from the sun is transferred into chemical energy in the plant and is stored as carbs (eg glucose)
        • this is not very effective as most of the energy is reflected or lost as heat
      • cell walls are made of cellulose. Energy is stored in chemicals in cells/tissue/growth as glucose/starch/fat
    • Decay
      • 1.plants take elements  (carbon, oxygen etc) from the soil and air. And turn them into compounds that make up animals.
        • compounds- carbs, fats and proteins
      • 2. the elements are returned by waste products or when the organism dies.  These materials decay
        • decay- digested by micro-organisms
      • 3. micro-organisms work best in warm, moist conditions with lots of oxygen. Compost bins re create this
      • detritus- dead/ decaying matter
        • eg, dead leaves
      • detritivore- feeds on detritus.
        • earth worms, maggots, woodlice
    • Being vegetarian is more energy efficient because you're cutting out the higher food chain levels
    • Carbon Cycle
      • 1. dead organisms digested by detritivores and decomposers (bacteria). The bacteria digest the organic molecules (proteins, carbs) into small pieces which are then absorbed
      • 2. bacteria release CO2 into the atmospheare when they respire.
      • 3. if the dead organisms are fossilised they can be burnt (combustion) which releases CO2
      • 4. plants use CO2 in photosynthesis
    • photosynthesis-  carbon+water------> glucose+oxygen
    • respiration- glucose+oxygen           ----------> C02+water+energy

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