Electrons and bonding notes

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  • Created by: GAdams
  • Created on: 26-03-16 14:07
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  • Electrons and bonding
    • 1s2;2s2;2p6;3s2;3p6;4s2;3d10;4p6;5s2;4d10
    • Atomic orbital: A region around the nucleus that can hold up to two electrons of opposite spin.
      • Electrons are negatively charged and repel each other. Orbitals therefore have electrons of opposite spin.
      • One electron occupies an orbital until they all contain one electron. After this, pairing begins.
    • P-orbitals: ring/sphere shape around nucleus
    • S-orbitals: double-balloon shape around nucleus.
    • No. of electrons per shell: 2n^2 when n = no. of shells.
    • Ionic bonding
      • The electrostatic attraction between two negatively charged ions as the result of the transfer of electrons.
      • Ionic compounds may form lattices since the electrostatic forces of attraction work in all directions.
        • Ionic compounds have very high melting and boiling points since the electrostatic forces are very difficult to overcome by heating
          • Salts may dissolve in polar solvents where the molecules break down the lattice and surround each ion.
            • If the attraction between the charges is very strong then the compound is not very soluble.
      • When solid, the ions are in a fixed position, so the charges are immobile, but, when dissolved, the lattice breaks down and the ions are now free to move as mobile charges.
    • Covalent bonding
      • The electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and two bonded nuclei.
      • Some elements (i.e. S and B) can form covalent bonds to have more than 8 electrons in their outer shells.
      • A dative covalent or coordinate bond is a covalent bond where a shared pair or electrons is a lone pair from only one of the bonding atoms.
      • Average bond enthalpy is a measurement of covalent bond strength.


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