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Preview of Bonding

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Ionic Bonding
When bonds between a metal and a non-metal occur, metal loseelectrons and become `+' charged, non-metals gain
electrons and become `-' charged.
Properties of Ions
Strong bonds - Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
Conducts electricity when dissolved/molten ­ ions are freeto move
High melting and boiling points - strong bonds
Solid at room temperature
Regular 3D structure ­ ionic lattice
Covalent and Co-ordinate Bonding
Single Covalent Bond ­ When 2 electrons are shared in a covalent bond between two non-metals
Double Covalent Bond ­ When 4 electrons are shared in a covalent bond between two non-metals
Dative Bond ­ When one atom donates both the electrons to form the covalent bond
Both types of bond have the same strength because they are birth a bond occurring between two non-metals and a pair
of electrons
Dative Bonds in Water
Dative bonds can also be represented with a double headed arrow in a displayed formula. This
demonstrates that the electron pair is from the same atom.
Diamond and Graphite
Each carbon atom is covalently bonded to 4 other carbon atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement
Diamond has a 3D structure meaning that it has
A high melting point
It is a hard material
It doesn't conduct electricity
Strong covalent bonds between atoms
Each carbon atom is covalently bonded to 3 other carbon atoms in a hexagonal arrangement.
The atoms form layers which can slide over one another making it malleable

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Graphite's structure means that it:
Conducts electricity (Delocalised electrons between layers)
Has a high melting point
It is soft/malleable
Metallic Bonding
Metal elements form giant metallic lattice structures
Outer shell of electrons of each metal atom is delocalized
Metal atoms become positive metal ions
Positive metal ions attracted to delocalised electrons
Closely packed metal ions among `sea' of delocalised electrons
Properties of Metals
High melting/boiling points ­ They a have a giant structure and strong attraction between ions and
.........................................…read more

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Atom size
Surface area (less branching = more surface area = more points of contact)
Permanent Dipole-Dipole
Caused by electronegativity (see below). In bonds where one atom has a higher electronegativity than the other
(e.g.…read more

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Remember that the biggest angles are between two lone pairs. Lone pair/bonding pair angles are the second biggest,
and bonding pair/bonding pair angles the smallest.…read more


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