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Bonding
Ionic Bonding
When bonds between a metal and a non-metal occur, metal loseelectrons and become `+' charged, non-metals gain
electrons and become `-' charged.

Properties of Ions
Strong bonds - Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
Conducts electricity when dissolved/molten ­ ions are freeto move
High melting and boiling…

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Graphite's structure means that it:
Conducts electricity (Delocalised electrons between layers)
Has a high melting point
It is soft/malleable


Metallic Bonding
Metal elements form giant metallic lattice structures
Outer shell of electrons of each metal atom is delocalized
Metal atoms become positive metal ions
Positive metal ions attracted to delocalised…

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Atom size
Surface area (less branching = more surface area = more points of contact)


Permanent Dipole-Dipole
Caused by electronegativity (see below). In bonds where one atom has a higher electronegativity than the other
(e.g. HCl), the more electronegative atom will attract the bonding pair of electrons towards it, causing…

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Remember that the biggest angles are between two lone pairs. Lone pair/bonding pair angles are the second biggest,
and bonding pair/bonding pair angles the smallest.

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