AQA AS Chemistry Unit 1 Notes: Structure & Bonding, shapes of molecules, bond angles, ionic bonding, covalent bonding, metallic bonding, intermolecular forces, van der waals, induced dipole, polar

Some notes on AQA AS CHEM1 3.1.3 - Structure & Bonding, covering..

  • Ionic bonding
  • Covalent bonding
  • Metallic bonding
  • Intermolecular forces
  • Shapes of molecules


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Ionic Bonding
Occurs between metals and non-metals
Involves transferal of electrons from metal atoms to non-metal atoms
Positive and negative ions are formed
Electrostatic attraction holds positive and negative ions together ­ this is an
ionic bond
Always exist in a lattice…

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Iodine is an example of a molecular crystal with the above properties. The iodine
atoms pair up to form I2 molecules, held together by strong covalent bonds.
Intermolecular forces between the I2 molecules hold the crystal together.
There are two main carbon macromolecular structures: graphite and diamond.
These are allotropes…

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Metallic Bonding

Metal elements form giant metallic lattice structures
Outer shell of electrons of each metal atom is delocalized
Metal atoms become positive metal ions
Positive metal ions attracted to delocalised electrons
Closely packed metal ions among `sea' of delocalised electrons

Property of metals Explanation
High melting/boiling points Giant structure,…

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Increases across a period as more electrons become delocalized
Decreases down a group as the atomic radius increases

Magnesium is an example of a metallic crystal with the above properties. Each
magnesium atom loses their 2 outer electrons to become Mg2+ ions.

Intermolecular Forces

There are three types of intermolecular…

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or oxygen. These atoms are highly
electronegative, and so attract the
bonding electrons towards them in the
covalent bond. The hydrogen atom then
has a high charge density (because the
atom is so small and positively charged),
resulting in it forming strong
intermolecular forces with F, N or O

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Remember that the biggest angles are between two lone pairs. Lone pair/bonding
pair angles are the second biggest, and bonding pair/bonding pair angles the


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