The long and short term effects of the Cuban missile crisis

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  • Effects of the Cuban missile crisis
    • long term
      • Khrushchev wasn't leader in 1964
      • Soviet government wanted to catch up up to America in the arms race. They were on equal footing in terms of nuclear weapons capability by 1965.
      • Greater stability was created between the two superpowers relationships (because of the arms race)
      • France left NATO- if a nuclear war happened then all members would fight with America.
        • Charles de Gaulle, French president, wasn't happy with the thought that France would be destroyed in that way.
      • In 1966, France ended its military alliance with America and started to develop its own nuclear weapons.
      • Both leaders realised that any nuclear war would destroy both countries. The doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD) was an idea that gave them an excellent reason to avoid war.
    • short term
      • Détente- was a relaxing of tensions in the superpowers relationship.
        • Initially the moves to Détente were slow but it soon became a key feature of their relations in the 1970's.
      • June 1963- Kennedy signalled his commitment with the USSR in a speech. He argued that the superpowers needed to focus on their 'common interests'.
      • The crisis highlighted the fragility of international peace and the difficulties of negotiation between the US & USSR.
      • The 'hotline'- in June 1963, a direct line was set up. This was between the Russian Premier in Moscow and the American president in Washington.
      • Reduction in Khrushchev's authority.
        • Many believed that he betrayed Cuba.
        • Because the removal of the American missiles in Turkey was a secret.
      • The limited test ban treaty- the USA & USSR agreed, in July 1963, that all nuclear testing in space, oceans and above ground was banned. the only nuclear tests that were still permitted were underground tests.


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