The Consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis

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  • The Consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Short-term consequences of the crisis
      • Communist Cuba survived as Kennedy gave assurances the USA would not invade Cuba again
      • USSR looked weak, world did not know the US had removed missiles from Turkey, undermined Khrushchev and Brezhnev replaced him in 1964
      • US 'doves' came out well, their desire to avoid war resulted in the missiles being withdrawn
    • Long-term consequences
      • Showed how easily a nuclear war can start
        • US initiated a move to détente - a less stressful, more informed relationship between the USA and the Soviet Union
      • Hotline agreement created a direct communication link between Washington and Moscow
      • Limited Test Ban Treaty (Aug 1963) - both sides agreed to ban all nuclear weapon testing except for underground tests
      • 1963 - Kennedy gave a speech about working with the USSR to focus on their 'common interests'
      • USSR was determined to catch up with the USA in the arms race and achieve this by 1965, this mean Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), was would be so terrible it should be avoided at all costs
      • The US and USSR signed the Outer Space Treaty in 1967, which limited the deployment of nuclear weapons in space, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968, prevented nuclear weapons being given to other countries
  • Timeline - 1962
    • 16 Oct  - Kennedy is informed that US spy planes have found missile sites in Cuba
      • 20 Oct - Kennedy decides against attack, orders a blockade of Cuba
        • 24 Oct - USSR says blockade is an act of aggression and its ships will ignore it
          • 25 Oct - US and USSR prepare for nuclear war
            • 27 Oct - Cuba gets ready for invasion, Khrushchev offers to remove Cuban missiles if US does the same from Turkey and Italy bases, US spy plane is shot down over Cuba, US 'hawks' demand retaliation, Robert Kennedy sets up deal where the US would secretly withdraw warheads from Turkey and Italy
              • 28 Oct - Khrushchev agrees to deal, missiles withdrawn in return for US agreeing never to attack Cuba and taking its missiles out of Italy and Turkey

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