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  • DNA
    • Structure of DNA
      • Made up of 3 base components to make a nucleotide
        • Deoxyribose
        • A phosphate group
        • An organic base
          • Single ring base
            • Cytosine and thymine
          • Double ringed base
            • Adenine and guanine
            • Have longer molecules
          • Have shorter molecules
        • Combined by a condensation reaction
      • DNA is made up of 2 strands of nucleotides
        • Joined together by hydrogen bonds
          • Formed between certain bases
      • Organic bases are made of nitrogen
        • Adenine and thymine form 2 hydrogen bonds
        • Guanine and Cytosine form 3 hydrogen bonds
      • The double helix has 10 base pairs
    • Function of DNA
      • It is a hereditary material the passes on genetic information
      • 2 separate strand that are joined by hydrogen bonds
        • Allows it to separate during replication and protein synthesis
      • Stable and can pass through generations with out change
      • Very large molecule
        • Can carry a lot of genetic information
    • Genes
      • Section of DNA that codes for information making polypeptides
        • Usually a specific sequences of bases
        • Polypeptides combine to make proteins
          • Genes determine the protein organism
          • Enzymes are proteins
      • A gene is a sequence of DNA bases the determine a polypeptide
        • Polypeptides are a sequence of amino acids
    • Bases come in a minimum of 3
      • Only 20 Amino acids occur  in proteins regularly
      • Each amino acid has its own code of bases
        • Some amino acids have more than one code
      • Only 4 different bases
      • Triplet code
    • Prokaryotic cells, DNA is smaller, circular and  not associated with a protein
    • Eukaryotic cells, DNA is linear and associated with proteins


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