OCR Geology, Dinosaurs revision mindmap

This is just a little mindmap that covers the Dinosaurs side of A2 Geology I will eventually put up a fossils one and then a dating and climate one. Hope you find this useful :)

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  • Dinosaurs (F795)
    • Similarities between Coelacanths/ Lungfish
      • Four limbs/ fins (tetrapod)
      • Limbs in the same body positions
      • Pentadactyl limbs
      • No claws/ nails
      • Similar skull morphology
      • Complex teeth
      • Tail fin
      • Scales
    • Amphibians adaptations
      • Skeletal girdle
      • Stronger skeleton
      • Eyelids
      • Better Circulation
      • Tounge
      • Ears
      • Amphibians still need water to lay eggs
    • Amniotic Egg advantages
      • Water is inside
      • No need for main water source
      • Hard outer shell Protection
      • Develops directly into mini adult
      • Laying less eggs, but better quality
      • Egg shell is porous for gas exchange= breathing
      • Yoke sack= food
      • No larval stage
    • Saurischia/ Ornithischia
      • At the early Triassic
      • Saurischia
        • Theropoda (birds+ T-rex)
          • Theropoda= Meat eater
          • Birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs
            • Hollow thin walled bones= lighter
            • S-shaped curved neck
            • Elongated arms/forelimbs
            • Clawed hands
            • Pubis shifted from forward to backward
            • Large orbits (eye sockets)
            • Hinged ankles (reduces rotation of ankle)
        • Sauropoda (Dipolodcus)
          • Sauropoda= Veg eater
        • Pubis bone points forward= primitive
        • Long S shaped mobile neck
        • 3 digits (or less)
        • Diplodocus
          • Long slender small skull
          • Long neck, allowing reaching to vegetation and foliage in wetlands
          • Peg-like teeth only found at the front, digesting would have been difficult so bacterial action or gastroliths to aid digestion
          • Long lightly built body, extra bones under
          • Bony protrusions point forwards/backwards (T) supporting extra mobility of neck/tail
          • Tail= long, whip like = defence
        • Tyrannosaurus
          • Small eyes, big eyes are for seeing prey.
          • Small arms, not good for grasping
          • Back legs were huge, for walking long distances
          • Large olfactory lobes, smelling lobes for scavenging
          • Meat eater, teeth= Large, curved and jagged making them ideal for tearing flesh
          • Wide jaws, open head= attacker
      • Ornithischia
        • Iguanadon
          • Horny beak to crop vegetation
          • Leaf shaped teeth able to flex side to side, grind down vegetation
          • Hinged upper jaw mean upper teeth move over lower teeth
          • Defensive spike used as a weapon or to obtain food on the thumb
          • Hand adaptation, can grasp trees
          • Quadrupedal/ Bipedal stance, ability to stand on all fours or run on two Quad= more energy efficient Bi= reach higher points
          • Tail= balance
        • Arrangement of bones similar to birds pubis bone points backwards
        • Front teeth are small/absent, replaced with a horny beak
        • Armored with bony plates, heat exchanges or defense Armour (triceratops)
        • Vegitarians
    • Archaeopteryx
      • Reptilian/Dino features
        • Long, bony lizard- like tail
        • Three digits on wings
        • Snout with developed reptilian teeth
        • Reptilian skull/ brain
        • Sternun not bony or keeled
        • Gastralia (belly ribs) present
        • S- shaped curved neck
      • Bird- like features
        • Wings for flight
        • Feathers
        • Hollow bones
        • Legs directly under body
        • Furcula present
        • Reversed big toe
    • Mass extinctions
      • Permo- triassic 251 ma
        • Super continent
          • Pangaea formed
          • Fewer continental shelves (nowhere for shallow marine organisms)
          • Huge climatic fluctuations
          • Fewer rivers to less nutrients reaching the sea
          • Fewer rivers so less fresh water increasing salinity
          • Huge glaciations so sea level dropped
        • Volcanoes
          • Siberian traps= biggest eruption ever covered 2 mil km squared
          • Poisonous gases released
          • Gases/ash particles caused global cooling
          • CO2 + SO2 greenhouse gases cause global warming
          • Methane hydrates= positive feedback
      • Cretaceous- Tertiary 65ma
        • Asteroid/ Meteorite Impact
          • Iridium at boundary
          • Shocked quartz grains
          • Tektites (solidified molten rock)
          • Tsunami- sedimentary structures
          • Crater 180km in diameter at the Yucatan Peninsula Mexico
        • Volcanoes
          • Decan traps (India 1/2 million km squared of basalt)
          • Poisonous gases released
          • Ash cloud caused global cooling 100s/ 1000s of years
          • CO2 + SO2 Greenhouse gases

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