new frontier

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  • did JFK's new frontier programme achieve its aims?
    • Social welfare and un employment
      • May 1961 increased minimum wage from $1 to $1.25
        • southern democrats ensured certain workers were excluded
          • 150,000 laundry workers (high % of black Americans
      • proposed to pass equal pay act
        • no enforcement powers - thwarted by congressional opposition
      • area re- development act 1961: provided $394 million over 4 years for areas such as Appalachia
        • extra $455 million in 1963 blocked by congress
      • housing act 1961 - less opposition from congress: $4.8 billion funding
      • trade expansions act as result of negotiation in international organisations
        • cuts in tariffs by 35% between USA and EEC
        • presidential power to cut tariffs by 50% to other countries
      • March 1961 through executive order created CEEO to allocate proportion of federal jobs to black Americans
        • little change - 1961 black unemployment double white
    • Education
      • submitted school assistance bill 1961, asking for £2.3 billion dollars over 3 years to help construct schools and raise salaries
        • church run schools excluded - bill rejected in house of representative
      • executive order used to increase school lunch and milk programmes for the poor
        • 700,000 children received free meals and milk
      • Higher Education Facilities Act 1963
        • $143 million grants for graduate schools in science, languages and engineering
    • Peace Corps
      • used executive order on 1st March 1961
      • sends American men and women to developing countries
      • first 2 years - 5,000 volunteers to carry out economic and technical aid to 46 countries
      • critics saw it as 'Yankee Imperialism'
    • Space Programme
      • 25th May 1961 JFK asked congress for extra $7-9 billion
      • within a year, 2 travelled in space, Alan Shepard and Virgil Grissom
        • however took until 20th February 1962 before American John Glenn matched soviets achievements of orbiting the earth
      • acted as important stimulant to research and development in computing etc
      • created a legacy for NASA to land a man on the moon
    • Environmentalism
      • 1963 Congress passed his proposal for the clean air act - limiting air pollution
      • Steward Udall became secretary of the interior and made major imporvements
        • gained 3,85 million acres of land
        • 6 national monuments
        • 9 national recreation areas


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