diabetes

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  • Type II Diabetes
    • symptoms
      • Most common: Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss (not in type II)
      • Less common: blurred vision, itchiness, peripheral neuropathy, vaginal infections and fatigue
    • clinical complications
      • CVD, ischemic heart disease, stroke, renal failure, diabetic retinopathy
    • Type II
      • Cause
        • Insufficient insulin production from beta cells giving rise to insulin resistance (often due to obesity having to high demand for insulin)
      • Risk factors
        • lifestyle
          • poor diet/exercise (obesity), smoking, sugary drinks, lack of sleep
        • Genetics
          • Age, female gender, genetics (polygenic)
        • Medical conditions
          • Drugs such as glucocorticoid, thiazides, beta blockers, statins all predispose diabetes
          • Thyroid dysfunction
          • Renal problems
          • Cushings
          • Acromegaly
      • Treatment
        • improved diet and exercise, or medication
      • Definition
        • Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
          • metabolic disorder characterised by high blood glucose due to relative insulin deficiency from insulin resistance
    • Diabetic nephropathy
      • progressive kidney disease caused by angipathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli, due to diabetes
    • Diagnosis
      • Tests
        • fasting glucose, 2 hour glucose
        • HbA1c
        • glucose tolerance test
        • random glucose
      • Clinical Presentation
        • symptoms
          • Most common: Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss (not in type II)
          • Less common: blurred vision, itchiness, peripheral neuropathy, vaginal infections and fatigue

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