Depression Case Studies

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  • Depression - Research Studies
    • Classification and Diagnosis.
      • Zimmerman
        • Simplified the DMS by creating one that only used mood and cognitive symptoms
      • McCullogh
        • All Types of depression respond similarly in regards to treatment and symptoms, so not issue when comes to diagnosis and treatment
    • Biological Explanations.
      • Genetic Factors
        • Wender - AO1
          • Adoption study - higher levels of depression in biological relatives than non-biological.
        • Harrington - AO1
          • Family Study - 20% relative of people with depression have it, compared to 10% of general public.
        • McGuffin - AO1
          • Twin studies - concordance rate for MZ twins = 46%, DZ twins 20%.
        • Kendler - AO2
          • Support for diathesis stress model.
        • Kendler - AO2
          • Higher incidence of mental illness when in twins when looking at anxiety and depression - Comorbidity
      • Dysfunction in Neurotransmitters
        • Bunney - AO1
          • Noradrenaline by-products in urine were low in depressed people.
        • Delgado - AO1
          • When given tryptophan deficient diet, those recovering relapsed, those not suffering not affected.
        • Kraft - AO2
          • More positive response to SNRI than placebo.
        • Ruhe - AO2
          • Brief relapse during tryptophan deficiency, low serotonin linked to depression.
        • Aan Hert Rot - AO2
          • Depressive episodes alter serotonin system.
        • Zhang _AO2
          • Mutant gene that starves the body of oxygen, 10X more prevalent in depressed.
    • Psychological Explanations.
      • Freud's Psychodynamic theory.
        • Shan and Walker - AO2
          • People who suffer from depression describe parents as affectionless
        • Barnes and Prosen. - AO2
          • Children who lost parent in childhood, more likely to have depression in adulthood.
        • Bifulco - AO2
          • Children who lost parent in childhood, more likely to have depression in adulthood.
        • Paykell and Cooper - AO2
          • Only 10% of those who suffered loss become depressed.
      • Cognitive Factors - Beck
        • Seligman - AO1
          • Learned Helplessness.
        • Bates - AO2
          • Depressed Ps given negative automatic thought statements, became more depressed.
        • Kwon and Laurenceau - AO2
          • Evidence to suppose learned hopelessness model
        • Notman and Nodelson - AO2
          • Negative attributional style more common in women.
        • Hammen and Krantz - AO2
          • Depressed women made more errors in logic when asked to interpret written material
    • Biological Therapes
      • Drug Therapies
        • Ferguson - AO2
          • Adolescents treated with SSRIs were twice as likely to attempt suicide.
        • Barbui - AO2
          • SSRIs dramatically decrease the risk of suicide in adults
        • Hammen - AO2
          • Antidepressants don't have as big of an effect on children as adults.
      • ECT
        • Gregory
          • Compared ECT with 'sham' ECT, real ECT significantly more affective.
        • Rose
          • 1/3 of patients complained of persistent memory loss following ECT.
        • Department of Health.
          • 30% patients reported permanent fear and anxiety after ECT.
    • Psychological Therapies
      • CBT - Beck
        • Robinson - AO2
          • CBT superior to non treatment groups.
        • Kuyken and Tsivrikos - AO2
          • 15% of the variance in ourcomes due to therapist competence.
      • PIT - Robert Hobson
        • Paley
          • Outcomes of PIT are atleast equivalent to those achieved by CBT.
        • NHS Study
          • Significant improvements in patients who completed the therapy.
  • Hammen and Krantz - AO2
    • Depressed women made more errors in logic when asked to interpret written material

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