demography mindmap

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  • Demography
    • Births.
      • Reasons for the decline in the birth rate.
        • 1. Changes in the position of women.
          • Legal equality with men.
          • Changes in attitudes to family life and womens roles.
          • Increased educational opportunities.
            • Girls now do better at school than boys.
          • More women in paid employment.
            • Laws outlawing unequal pay & sex discrimination.
          • Easier access to divorce.
          • Access to abortion and reliable contraception.
            • Giving women more control over their fertility.
        • 2. Decline in infant mortality rate.
          • Infant mortality rate = the number of infants who die before their first birthday per thousand babies born alive per year.
          • Sociologists argue that a fall in infant mortality rate leads to a fall in birth rates.
          • In 1900, the infant mortality rate for the UK was 154.15% of babies died within their first year.
          • Improved sanitation, housing, medicine, nutrition and knowledge.
        • 3. Children have become an economic liability.
          • Laws
            • Not allowing child labour, instead they must be in school.
              • Factory Act
          • Changin norms.
            • Children cost more to raise.
        • 4. Child Centredness.
          • Childhoos is socially constructed.
      • Effects of changes in fertility.
      • Birth Rate.
        • Birth rate has fallen from 28.7 in 1900 to 10.7 in 2007.
        • Baby Booms
          • 3 in the 20th century.
          • The first 2 'baby booms' came after the 2 world wars (1914-18 & 1939-45)
            • There was a 3rd in the 1960's.
              • Birth rates fell sharply in in the 70's. Rose in the 80's, fell in the 90's to increase again in 2001.
    • Deaths.
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