DATING of Luke's Gospel

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  • Dating Luke's Gospel.
    • Early Date of around 60 A.D
      • 3 Main Reason for this Dating
        • 1) Acts ends abruptly with imprisonment of Paul, Luke would have added his execution of 65-66 AD.
          • Luke paralled Peter and Paul with Jesus, surely they would have included his death as an,
            • " A culminating imitation of his master."
          • Maybe it was not included as Luke wanted to end his writing with a future hope for Christianity.
            • Markan priority 65-70 AD. FITZYMER.
        • 2) Author of acts has no knowledge of the letters of Paul, which were of server importance to his ministry.
          • Some scholar then argue that Acts must have been before they became well known. They were written in 50-64 AD.
        • 3) Luke in his gospel does not appear to be overly concerned with persecution, as seen with his positive portrayal of the Roman Empire.
          • Must have then written prior to Nero's persecutions, which began in 64 AD. Because it is unlikely he would written so kindly of the empire had he persecutions happened.
    • Late date of 130 AD
      • 3 reasons have been given for this dating
        • 1) some scholars hold that some of the issues dealt with in Luke's Gospel, give the impression of an later date.
          • DOOHAN notes that, the second coming has been reinterpreted, church is now seen as an organised institution and there is looking back to traditions, reflections on early history and searching for roots
        • 2) Argued that Lucan material in fact contains information drawn from the ANTIQUITES OF THE JEWS, written in 96 AD.
          • Luke refers to LYSANIUS Lk 3:1.
          • Theudas and Judas Acts 5:36-37
          • Luke made mistakes and errors of all three used by Josephus. Doubtful he would have used him as a source.
            • Lysanius died in 34 BC and he mixed up theudas and Judas.
        • 3) scholars such as ONEILL say that Luke's writing is similar to the apologetic writing of Justin Martyr who wrote in 130 AD.
          • Both show similarities such as showing christianity as an outgrowth of Judaism, also Justin in his writing does not seem familiar with Luke.
            • Possible gospel had not circulated by 130 AD.
              • FITZYMER notes, " The relationship between acts and justin martyr has been greatly overestimated by ONEILL.
    • Date around 80-90 AD.
      • 5 Reasons for this majority favoured date.
        • 1) LK 21 knowledge of the destruction of Jerusalem, knew city would be surrounded by armies so was well aware of what went on
          • Mark was vague, leading us to believe written after 70 AD
        • 2) Dependant on Mark as Source. Was written around 65-70 AD and needed time for circulation and to be accepted by christians.
        • 3) Pauls letters may not have been well known until mid 90 AD. Unknowing of their importance therefore most likely had written before mid 90's AD
          • FITZYMER " Luke-Acts should be dated prior to the formation of the Pauline Corpus."
        • 4) Gospel was seen to be known by early church father CLEMENT OF ROME. Which were written in 96 AD, so Luke must have written prior to this date and time must be given for circulation of the gospel amongst christians.
          • John who wrote in around 95-105 Ad also seemed to have similar content used by Luke.
          • 5) Probable conclusion Luke wrote no earlier than 80 AD, due to Mark and knowledge of Jerusalem. But no Later than 90 AD due to clement, and Luke's unawareness of the importance of Paul's Letters.
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