Types of culture

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    • Subculture
      • Distinct norms and values within the dominant culture
      • May have an aversion to authority e.g. gangs and goths
    • Multiculturalism
      • Barker: celebrating differences
      • Equal status of ethnic groups
      • Ethnic groups live close together or side by side
      • Affected by migration
      • Can cause conflict e.g. racism and riots
    • Overall definition
      • Williams: "culture is a way of life that includes all aspects of the way of life of a group. Their values, norms, interests and ideas."
    • Cultural diversity
      • Parekh: 3 types of cultural diversity
        • Rebellion against dominant values e.g. Islamic extremists
        • Different ways of life but still serve the dominant culture e.g. Brixton
        • Long-established ethnic communities
    • High culture
      • Leavis: the elite upper class is something to be 'protected' by society
      • System of social closure
        • Close-knit
        • Difficult to enter
      • Ascribed status e.g the Royal Family
        • Aristocratic
      • Associated with expensive hobbies e.g. horse riding, golf, opera, hunting
    • Popular culture
      • Shallow activities entered into by the masses
      • Based on consumption
      • Idealises and aims to imitate high culture
        • e.g. Apple, Burberry
        • Fake imitations are made so that those who would otherwise not be able to afford high culture can feel as if they can
    • Consumer culture
      • Linked to popular culture
      • Lury: 5 signs of consumer culture
        • Cultural and economic factors drive the consumer
          • Culture of consumerism
        • A large choice of consumer goods is available
        • Shopping is a leisure pursuit consisting of different types
        • Debt is a social norm e.g the average UK family's debt is £10,000
        • Packing and promotion is a large business
    • Global culture
      • Ritzer: Macdonaldization is a reflection of globalisation
        • 'Microwave society'
        • Can lead to dehumanisation
          • Texting rather than talking face to face
          • Self checkouts
        • Predictability Calculability Control and Efficiency
      • Due to advancements in technology
        • Skype and Facebook: someone in India can talk to someone in Australia
        • Air travel has allowed families to disperse across the world
      • Global village
        • World is now more interconnected (lots of international communication)


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