Cultural variations in attachment

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  • Cultural variations in attachment
    • Individualistic cultures - individual (self over group) E.G UK
    • Collectivist cultures- collection of people (group over self) E.G China
    • Van ljzendoorn & Kroonenberg study
      • P= meta-analysis od the findings from 32 studies of attachment.
        • P = interested to see wether there would be evidence that inter-cultural differences did exist.
      • F= variations between cultures/ countries = small difference
        • Secure attachment was most common
          • C= Norm - best for healthy social and emotional development
        • Insecure-avoident was the second most common execpt israel and japan
        • Variation within cultures = 1.5 times greater thn variations between cultures
    • Cultural similarities/ differences
      • S = Tronick african tribe
      • D = German infants = insecurely
    • Large sample
      • Almost 2000 babies and their caregiver = increased internal validity by reducing the impact of anomalous results cause by bad metholodgy or ppts
    • Cultural bias
      • Theory is rooted in american culture
      • Actually defined by individuation rather than securely attached
        • American = independant, able to explore and able to regulate own emotions
        • Japan = inhibition of emotional expression. Being group orientated rather than self-orientated
    • Universal similarities innate
      • BT = attachment is an innate mechanism unmodified by culture
        • Effects of mass media - which spreads ideas about parenting = exposing children all over the world to similar influences
          • May be due to increasing global culture rather than innate biological influences
    • ** lacks validity
      • Might not be measuring attachment - measuring anxiety
        • Attachment is related to temperment than relationship with PCG

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