Cultural differences A01

  • Created by: MollyL20
  • Created on: 09-12-20 13:55
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  • Cultural variation
    • Van Ijzendoorn and Pieter Kroonenberg (1988) conducted a study to look at the proportions of secure, insecure avoidant and resistant attachments across a range of countries.
    • Procedures
      • The researchers located 32 studies of attachment where the strange situation had been used to investigate the proportion of infants with different attachment types
      • These 32 studies were carried out in 8 different countries, 15 in the USA, overall the 32 studies yielded 1990 children
      • The data for the 32 studies were met-analysed, results being combined and weighed for the sample size
    • Findings
      • There was a wide variation between the proportion of attachment types in different studies
      • In all countries secure attachment was the most common classification. However, the proportion varied from 75% in Britain to 50% in China
      • Insecure-resistant was the least common type although the proportions ranged from 3% in Britain to around 30% in Israel
      • Insecure-avoidant attachments were observed most commonly in Germany and least commonly in Japan
      • In the USA, one study found 46% securely attached compared to one sample as high as 90%
    • Italian study- Simonella et al (2014)
      • The researchers assessed 76 12 month olds using the strange situation. They found that 50% were secure and 36% insecure avoidant
      • This is a lower rate of attachment that had been found in many studies. They suggested that this is because increasing numbers of mothers are using professional childcare
      • These finding suggest that cultural changes can make a dramatic difference to patterns of secure and insecure attachment
    • Korean study- Jin et al (2012)
      • The strange situation was used to assess 87 children. The overall proportions were similar to those in most countries, with most infants being secure. However ore were classified as insecure resistant
      • This distribution is similar to the distribution in Japan. In terms of child rearing practises Korea and Japan are similar so this explains the similarity in results
    • Conclusions
      • Secure attachment seems to be the harm in a wide range of cultures, supporting Bowlby's idea that it is innate and universal
      • However, the research also shows that cultural practises have an influence on attachment type


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