Milgram- Obedience (A01)

  • Created by: MollyL20
  • Created on: 18-09-20 16:38
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  • Milgram-1974
    • Aim
      • How far would people go in obeying an instruction if it involved harming others
      • To test the 'Germans are different'
      • To test the dispositional vs situational
    • Method
      • Volunteers were recruited through a newspaper advert which asked for males of all ages, ethnicities and cultures
      • There were 40 participants between 20-50 whose jobs ranged from unskilled to professional from the New Haven area
      • They were introduced to another participant who was a confederate of the experiment. The confederate was always the learner when they took a drae
      • In one room, the learner was strapped into a chair with electrodes on his arms and then the other with the teacher, the experimenter who wore a lab coat.
      • Every time the learner got a question wrong, the teacher was required to shock the learner from 15V to 450V. The shocks of course weren't real
      • When the teacher refused to give a shock, the experimenter was given prods to ensure they continued. There were 4 prods
      • Prod 1: Please continue Prod 2: The experiment requires you to continue Prod 3: It is absolutely essential you continue Prod 4: You have no other choice, you must go on
    • Results
      • Milgram predicted that 2% of the participants would go up to 450V
      • 65% shocked all the way up to 450V and 100% shocked up to 300V
      • Qualitative data was also collected such as observations
        • The participants showed signs of extreme tension; such as sweating, trembling, stuttering, biting their lip, groaning and digging their nails into their hands
          • Three even had seizures
    • Conclusion
      • Ordinary people like to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being
      • Obedience to authority is ingrained into us all because of the way we have been brought up
    • Evaluation (Breif)
      • Low internal validity- Orne and Holland argued that the participants knew that the shocks werrent real
        • However, Sheridan and King (1972) conducted a similar experiment with puppies. 54% of males and 10% of females delivered fatal shocks
          • Suggests that Milgram's study is reliable. He also said the 70% of participants believed they were real
      • Deception- the participants actually thought that they were shocking someone
        • Argued that some deception was needed to allow for accurate, unbiased results


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