Crowded Coasts Case Studies

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  • Created by: Benjhigg
  • Created on: 23-04-15 09:48
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  • Crowded Coasts Case Studies
    • Bournemouth
      • Dorset's largest city. In 1851, it had a population of 695, and in 2001 it was 163,600.
        • This was a natural increase, with higher death rates than birth rates.It was due to inward migration - mostly over 50 years olds. This was due to...
          • Climate - Dorset's coast is the UK's sunniest
          • Accessibility - local urban amenities are easily available, and the area attracts commuters because it is less than two hours by train to london
          • High environmental quality - The coast is an attractive envirnoment to live in, situated only a few miles away from the UK's first area of World Heritage Coast
        • In 1859, railway linked the town to London, attracting holiday-makers. The first tourists were wealthy, because average wages were low.
          • In the 1880s a pier was built to attract more people, and average wages in increased, which brought more visitors in.
            • In the 1960s-70s, package holidays became available, leading to the population falling, buy 10,000
              • Regeneration took place to bring people back to the town. The railway upgraded and an airport was opened to link people with Europe and the Channel Islands
        • Most industries in the town are in banking, fanance and tourism. These industries are footloose (They can locate anywhere and are not tied to raw materials)
          • Footloose companies are attracted because..
            • Land is available for development, for which the council has given planning permission
            • The university provides a supply of skilled graduates
            • There is easy access to London and other Eurpean cities via the local airport
            • Wages are lower than in South-East England, especially London
            • House prices are also lower than in most of the South-East, so people can afford a bigger property there.
    • Fieldwork
      • Seaford, East Sussex
        • Management
          • Video interviews and questionnaires
            • Interviewing pedestrians on their opinion towards the management and effectiveness of Seaford’s coastal strategies
          • Beach profiling (investigated a managed beach)
            • Using technology and equipment to create a graphed cross-section on the beach
          • GPS/ Geotagging
          • Pollution recording from environmental probes
          • Because the eastern side has the deposition, where longshore drift ends up, this process has stopped. The western side is higher above sea level, because shingle is being deposited there
        • Risk - Degree of flood risk
          • Mapped land-use survey (what/where are the risks of flooding)
            • Assessing the risk in each grid-referenced area for flood risk
              • High risk towards eastern side
                • No residential areas are at high risk, but one residential area is at medium risk
          • Video interviews and questionnaires
            • Interviewing pedestrians on their opinion towards the management and effectiveness of Seaford’s coastal strategies
          • Pollution recording from environmental probes
          • Scanned postcards and drawings
            • Can be used for historical data
          • Digital maps to plot information
          • Research
            • Environmental agency flood risk
            • Video evidence
          • Untitled
      • Measuring Development and growth
        • Bognor Regis, West Sussex - Measuring development and growth
          • House age survey
            • Travelled to different locations and assessed house age on the street
              • These are subject to the opinion of the person assessing
          • Street Appearance
            • Assessed average street quality
              • These are subject to the opinion of the person assessing
          • Land-use survey
            • Travelled to locations on the map and identified different uses of the land. Per square on the map, they could have more than one purpose
        • Pressure
          • Pagham, West Sussex
            • Set squares were used to give random sampling of the vegetation of two areas; favourable and unfavourable for the plants. We took 10 samples in each area, using randomly generated numbers to determine co-ordinates in each area, to where we put our set squares
              • We measured the number of squares with natural foliage and with envaasive foliage, and how tall the foliage was. Limitations were the size of the set squares affecting accuracy and the difficulty to follow the co-ordinates for the set squares.
                • We found there was high vegetation in the nature reserve, with Red Valerian as the imposter plan. This is becuase less people trampled on the plants.
      • Southhamption Water
        • Has a broad area around it for development
          • "Save Dibden Bay" - a new container port has been proposed at Dibden Bay, Southhampton
            • 2.1km of docks, transforming an undeveloped area of land into a large port facility.
            • Great economic opportunity, but would transform the landscape into a huge area of concrete, year-round noise and light pollution.
            • Pros and cons
              • Capable of handling 6 container ships at a time
              • Site of Specific Scientific Interest, supporting over 50000 birds
              • Dredging would allow ships further inland, and would accomodate cruise ships
              • Traffic and noise pollution
              • Local residents have a loss of views
              • 3000 new jobs
              • Increased fuel spills from ships
              • New road link and railline
        • Has deepwater channels for large ships
        • Sheltered from storms
      • Holderness, East Yorkshire
        • Fastest eroding coastline in Europe, ewith the average rate of erosion at 1.8m per year.
          • Reasons
            • Cliffs are clay
              • Easily eroded
            • Prone to slumping when wet
            • Narrow beaches
              • Flamborough head stops sediment from north replenishing beaches
              • Made of chalk which dissolves rather than makeing sand
            • Powerful waves
              • Long fetch from the arctic ocean
              • Coast faces the dorminant wind and wave direction - NE
          • Social Impacts
            • Property prices falled
            • 30 villages since roman times lost
          • Economic Impact
            • Visitor numbers in Bridlington dropped by over 30% between 98 and 06
            • Caravan parks at risk
            • £2 million spent to protect coasts
            • Thousands of metres squared of farmland lost every year
          • Environmental Impacts
            • SSSIs threatened - the Lagoons near Easington
          • How can it be managed?
            • Hard engineering
              • Wooden groynes at Hornsea
                • Built to trap sediment in longshore drift, by the waves losing their energy. However, towns down the beach are starved of sediment.
              • Revetments at Easington
                • Built to protect the gas terminal. It consists of large granite boulders and abzorbs wave energy. They are expensive but long lasting, and look unattractive
              • Withersea Sea walls
                • Recurved - dissipate wave energy, reducing the undercutting, but costing more becuase of their shape.
                • Straight - reflect wave energy, but can be undercut, causing collapse.
            • Soft Engineering
              • Beach nourishment at Hornsea
                • Pumping sediment straight onto the beach, to create a widern beach to protect the cliff line and to add sediment into the coastal system so that areas downdrift benefit.
              • Coastal zone
                • Divides coast into land use zones. zones at risk are then identified and targetted
              • Managed retreat along the coastline
                • Abbotts Hall Farm, Essex
                  • 5 breaches were made in the embankments allowing sea water to cover 80 hectares of fields, to be a salt marsh
      • Thames Gateway - Risk from rising sea levels and flooding
        • Whilst the Thames Flood Barrier protects London, the Thames Gateway is downstream from the Barrier and has no protection
          • The government plans to provide 160,000 new houses and, further east at Southend-on-Sea, there will be a new university campus, retail and nightlife venues, and a new airport.
            • They want to build becuase...
              • Rapid expanding economy, causing demand for space for workplaces
              • Severe housing shortage
              • Had over 10% unemployment in 2007, so needs job creation
              • Low grade farmland, so isn't a huge loss for the farming uindustry.
            • Defences are patchy and in a poor state, and even without population expansion, 1.25 million people are already at risk of flooding
            • The building would make the situation worse because...
              • The airport would be built on marshland into the estuary. These provide flood defense in their natural state, because they act like a sponge.
                • To cope and deal with the increased risk, floodwalls are planned for the riverbank to protect built up areas and there are plans to set aside 'reseres' of land, as floodplanes for the water to be held like a sponge.
              • This level of urban expansion would create more inpermeable surfaces, leading to increased surface run-off and a greater risk of flooding
                • To cope and deal with the increased risk, floodwalls are planned for the riverbank to protect built up areas and there are plans to set aside 'reseres' of land, as floodplanes for the water to be held like a sponge.

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