crime prevention, police and courts

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  • crime prevention, police & courts
    • crime prev strategies
      • situational crime prev - Clarke - id 2 features
        • 1) inv managing the immediate env of the crime
        • 2) aim to increase the effort & risks coming crime (reducing rew)
        • e.g. tarfet hardening - use of CCTV & replace coin machine w/ swipe cards
      • community safety/ crime reduction
        • 2 other actions must happen
          • 1) intervention - id groups most at risk - put into action forms of intervention to limit offending
          • 2) community - inv local comm in combating crime
    • different styles of policing
      • traditional 'beat' policing
        • 1 officer had geograp area to control - replace w/ officers in cars who respond to incidents
        • these methods replaced w/ 2 approaches
          • 1) neighbourhood policing - police & comm support officers work in geog area
            • aim to know memb of comm & resp to concerns
          • 2) reactive policing - police respond to emergency calls f/ public for help
    • the way police relate to society
      • 3 main posit in und the relationship of police to soc
        • 1) consensual approach - police have close rel w/ citizens e.g. in Suburbia - neigh watch - strong inf soc cont
        • 2) conflict approach - police are seen as an occupying force - impose sel pol on w/c & eth mins
    • police discretion
      • job of police to enforce law - police use own discretion to circum in deciding which laws to apply
        • Reiner - 3 ways of explaining basic discretion
          • 1) Individualistic - police has own discretion & interests & applies it to law
            • Gorman - found racist pol officers = harsher to eth mins
          • 2) Cultural - pol offs white & male - have specific occupational culture
            • Skolnick - 3 components
              • 1) suspiciousness - part of training - thought to discrim bet decent & dev
              • 2) internal solidarity & social isolation - large amount of time w/ peers - isolated f/ public
              • 3) conservatism - must abide by law - those who want to join hardly ever have politically strong attitude
    • role of courts
      • once person has been caught by police, decision to press charges goes to CPS  - then taken to court
      • less serious crimes = magistrates courts
        • vols drawn f/ comm & rep
          • however, Morgan & Russel found magist refl ethnic divisions
            • 40% over retirement age
    • EVAL
      • doesn't solve the causes of crime in area - crims find diff areas/ type of crime/ victim
      • doesn't reduce w.c.c
      • is there a group who is most at risk of committing a crime?

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