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Situational crime prevention
Based on the idea that people will offend if the
costs are smaller than the benefits of an offence (i.
e. a right realist approach)
Solutions are:
Target hardening (i.e. making it harder
to steal) ­ improving locks on houses, Changing the design of streets to make
putting postcode on items so that they're them safer
harder to sell.
Physical changes in high crime areas to
limit the opportunities/ benefits of crime…read more

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Community safety/crime reduction
Alongside crime prevention two other actions must happen..
Intervention Community
It is important to identify the It's important to involve the local
groups most at risk and to community in combating crime
intervene to limit their offending i.e. broken window thesis
If low level of antisocial behaviour is
Risks could be: kept under control then the escalation
Low income to more serious crime is stopped
Poor housing The community can be strengthened
Low school attainment to fight crime by:
Street drinking bans
Antisocial behaviour orders…read more

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Theory: managing crime in the culture of control
Garland (2001)
The development of crime prevention is part of the
changes in the criminal justice system in late-modern
The traditional method of dealing with crime was penal
welfarism (catching and punishing offenders but
rehabilitating them so they can return to society after)
Now there is a culture of control which has an adaptive and
expressive element:
Adaptive: identifying dangerous groups, intervening and changing
the way they think and act
Expressive: more important for politicians to create the perception
that crime is declining then to change crime levels. Their
intervention focuses on changing perceptions rather than crime
rates…read more

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Theory: Actuarialism
Feeley and Simon (1992)
Similar analysis to Garland
`new penology' has developed
In the past: the criminal justice system would catch
offenders to punish/rehabilitate them
In contemporary society: the criminal justice system
focuses on controlling potentially deviant people…read more

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Theory ­ Penetration into society
Foucalt + Cohen
Community safety policy is a way for the government to diffuse its
power into the community
The publics concern over crime allows the government to intervene
in social activities e.g. the family, school, the community
This is because the government say these social activities potential
causes of crime…read more

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