Controlled Displays

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  • Created by: Sess
  • Created on: 20-05-15 07:38
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  • Controlled Displays
    • Tracking
      • Pursuit
        • When the input and outputs are on separate displays or separate elements of display
        • The operator attempts to follow the input with the output
        • The operator can better keep track of the input and anticipate it
        • If range is larger, display is zoomed out as they show the entire range of output at once
      • Compensatory
        • Input and output combined to show only the difference between the two.
        • Reduces system error
        • Can be used on big or small displays due to smaller scale range
      • Methods used to investigate human tracking
      • Human Limitations in Tracking
        • We have  a limited processing capacity
        • We have a limited bandwidth (if there are 3 displays, how does one control them?)
        • We have a limited ability to anticipate
      • Influencers of Performance
        • Preview
          • If you get a preview, you can pick things up faster
        • Lag
          • Can occur at any order
          • Results in confusion + frustration
        • Error
          • Can be minimized by training or lower order systems
        • Pursuit or compensatory
        • Pacing
          • Everyone has differing pace so system needs to be adjustable
        • Alternatives?
          • Hick's Law states that reaction time increases with the number of alternatives (1951)
    • Controls
      • Orders of control
        • 1) Zero Order
          • The cursor controls the location of the target
          • If you hold the cursor still, the system will be still
          • More precise, more human efficient
          • e.g. pen across paper, cursor on computer screen
        • 2) First or Rate Order
          • Velocity control (or rate of the change of position)
          • Saves human effort
          • If you hold a joystick in a certain direction, velocity increases
        • 3) Second Order
          • Rate of change of velocity
          • Hard to control, rarely used
          • Requires loads of effort and experience
        • 4) Higher Order e.g. 3rd or 4th
        • Response errors increase with increasing order of control
          • Wickens (1986)
      • Spatial
        • Buttons should be grouped by functionality
        • Knobs shouldn't be far from their corresponding display
      • Movement
        • Compatible movement to what they are supposed to do
        • Human stereotypes need to be considered
    • Displays
      • Visual
        • Used for long, complex messages
        • Used if the message will be refered to
        • Or if it doesnt need to be immediately read
        • Used if dealing with a certain location
        • Or if auditory system is overburdened due to a noisy area
      • Auditory
        • For short and simple messages
        • The message deals with events in time that cannot be delayed
        • The location is too dark or bright for media
      • Tactile/Haptic
      • Proprioceptive
      • Olfactory
    • Effects of Automation
      • Advantages
        • Freedom from tedious work
        • Saves time + money
        • Greater accuracy
        • Greater productivity
      • Disadvantages
        • Greater unemployment
        • De-socialisation
        • Remoteness: a person is not hands on with their job
        • De-skilling: you become out of practice
        • Discomfort in assuming control
        • Technical Illiteracy
        • Abandonment of responsibility if it goes wrong
    • Perceptual Principles
      • Quantitative or qualitative displays
        • eg. clock for quantitative or traffic light (red means stop) for qualitative
      • Vision Apprehension Limits
        • We can only see 5-6 things at once
        • Factor in the visual angle of seeing things
      • Coding or symbols?
      • Similarity Principle
      • Proximity Principle
        • Wertheimer (1923)
      • Symmetry Principle
      • Common Fate Principle
      • Continuity Principle
        • Objects that are aligned tend to be grouped
        • Bridger (1995)
      • Closure Principle
        • Pulling an complete form from partial information
        • Prevents us seeing the blind spot
      • Past Experience

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