Facial Expressions & Cues

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  • Created on: 23-04-15 16:37
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  • Facial Expressions & Cues
    • Face to Face communication involves: facial expressions, gaze, lip reading & paralanguage
    • Darwin (1872)
      • The universality of emotional expressions and the interpretation of both facial and bodily emotional expressions.
      • Animal studies supporting Darwin’s claim
        • Parr & Heintz, 2009: Rhesus monkeys are able to match two faces of monkeys expressing the same expression even if the identify of the posers are different 
        • da Costa et al., 2004: Sheep preferred to look at both sheep and human faces displaying a positive emotion, rather than a negative emotion 
    • Paul Ekman
      • New Guineans showed high agreement with those in literate cultures:      Happines-92 Anger-84%-  Disgust-81% Sadness79%   Surprise-68%
      • The processing of facial emotional expressions is universal across cultures
      • A number of ‘basic’ emotions that are universal (Ekman and Izard):  •Happiness •Sadness •Anger •Disgust •Fear •Surprise        (Fear and surprise can be confused among           some cultures)
        • •Happiness recognised most accurately across cultures, while anger less recognised (Ekman, 1972).
          • Categorical Perception: Classifying emotional expressions into categories rather than perceiving them as a mixture of different emotions
        • Morphed happiness most easily recognised
          • Categorical Perception: Classifying emotional expressions into categories rather than perceiving them as a mixture of different emotions
      • key research questions (1) the universality of emotions (2)Are there universal ‘basic’ emotions?
    • Gaze & Eye Contact
      • A number of functions (Kleinke 1986)  :           1. Regulating turn taking      2. Expressing intimacy        3. Exercising social control  4. Facilitating service and task goals          
      • The perception of gaze is a fundamental building block of human capacity to understand others’ mental states.
      • Averting Gaze can be cognitively advantageous :A college student study (Glenberg, Schroeder, & Robertson, 1998). •Performance on moderately difficult questions better when the eyes closed than fixed. 

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