Wildlife Conservation Methods

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  • Wildlife Conservation methods
    • Legal protection
      • Trade Controls - CITES
        • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
        • International agreement between governments that regulates the international trade in endangered animals, plants or their products
        • Species threatened with extinction - places complete ban on trade(except for special license, e.g. zoo breeding programmes) tiger, blue whale
        • Species that may be threatened w/ extinction if trade is not closely controlled - Limited trade is permitted. Polar bears, venus fly trap
        • Species where countries have requested assistance on protection. Walrus in Canada. Pygmy anteater in Guatemala
      • Banning damaging activities
        • Provides protection for many wildlife species by legally protecting their habitats or by making the exploitation/ harming of them illegal
        • SSSIs may be designated to protect habitats
        • Uprooting of wild plants is illegal
        • Badgers & their tunnels are protected
      • Designation of legally protected areas
        • Designated protected areas place restrictions on the activities that may be carried out there to provide protection for the community of species that live there - rather than for particular species
          • SSSIs
          • NNRs
          • SACs
          • MNRs
          • Ramsar Sites
    • Suitable management of Exploitation
      • IWC - Internation Whaling Commission
        • Aims to control whaling & ensure exploitation is sustainable by conserving whale stocks by:
          • total protection for certain species
          • designation of whale sanctuaries
          • setting limits on no. & size of whales taken
          • carrying out research
      • CFP - EU Common Fisheries Policy
        • Ensure sustainable exploitation of fish resources
        • Inability to set appropriate quotas & prevent the killing of undersize fish = FAILED
    • Captive Breeding & Release
      • Problems with keeping species in captivity
        • Some too large and/or have specific habitat, e.g. blue whale
        • Difficult to provide enough food/ food in the right way, e.g. bamboo for pandas
        • Expensive to keep them in zoos/botanical gardens
        • Complicated species interactions - Large blue butterfly caterpillars spend winter in ant nests
      • Problems with captive breeding programmes
        • Not enough known to provide right conditions for successful breeding
        • Some species require stimulants to breed
        • Small gene pool = interbreeding
      • Methods of increasing the success of captive breeding
        • Cryopreservation - egg, sperm & embryo storage - deep frozen. Transported easily instead of male
        • Artificial Insemination - reduces problems / risks of moving animals
        • Embryo transfer - treated with hormone (FSH) to stimulate release of many eggs, IV fertilised.
  • Wildlife & Countryside Act
    • Banning damaging activities
      • Provides protection for many wildlife species by legally protecting their habitats or by making the exploitation/ harming of them illegal
      • SSSIs may be designated to protect habitats
      • Uprooting of wild plants is illegal
      • Badgers & their tunnels are protected
  • Problems with seed banks
    • Captive Breeding & Release
      • Problems with keeping species in captivity
        • Some too large and/or have specific habitat, e.g. blue whale
        • Difficult to provide enough food/ food in the right way, e.g. bamboo for pandas
        • Expensive to keep them in zoos/botanical gardens
        • Complicated species interactions - Large blue butterfly caterpillars spend winter in ant nests
      • Problems with captive breeding programmes
        • Not enough known to provide right conditions for successful breeding
        • Some species require stimulants to breed
        • Small gene pool = interbreeding
      • Methods of increasing the success of captive breeding
        • Cryopreservation - egg, sperm & embryo storage - deep frozen. Transported easily instead of male
        • Artificial Insemination - reduces problems / risks of moving animals
        • Embryo transfer - treated with hormone (FSH) to stimulate release of many eggs, IV fertilised.
    • Viability of seeds decline with increasing periods of storage
    • Expensive
    • Hard to store large seeds, e.g. coconuts

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