Confidence

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  • Confidence
    • Self-efficacy "situation-specific belief about ability to cope"
      • Self efficacy is based on 4 primary sources
        • Verbal persuassion
          • Encouragement from significant others
        • Performance accomplishments
          • Previous success at the task
            • Strategies to improve self-efficacy
              • Encouragement from significant others
              • Perceiving physiological arousal as indicating emotion
              • Watching others of similar standard successfully perform a skill
              • Encourage the performer to use cog techniques over mind
              • Ensure the performer achieves successful performances
              • Effective goal setting - individual
              • Allow performer to have routines
              • Use imagery and visualization
              • Extrinsic motivation
              • Causes of reduction in SE
                • Goal setting too outcome rather than performer orientated
                • Feedback becomes too negative
                • External rewards restricted to 'best' performers rather than those who hit goals
        • Emotional arousal
          • Perceiving physiological arousal as indicating emotion
        • Vicarious experiences
          • Watching others of similar standard successfully perform a skill
    • Social facilitation "effect of others on performance"
      • According to Zajonc there are 4 types of "others" present in sport
        • Co-actors that are doing the sport alongside you
        • Supports encouraging or criticizing
        • Competitors are in conflict with the performer
        • Audience just watching
      • Features of social facilitation
        • Facilitation - performance made better
        • Inhibition - performance worsens
        • Evaluation apprehension - fear of being judged
          • Fear is made worse if....
            • Audience is known
            • Audience is critical
            • Lacking confidence
            • Audience involves experts
        • Audience - watching performance
        • Dominant response - focusing on one or two cues as info processes reduces
        • Increased arousal - increased drive by being watched
      • Linking to drive theory (Zajonc)
        • presence of others leads to increased arousal
          • Increased arousal leads to increase chance of dominant response
            • If dominant response if the correct one - facilitation occurs
            • If dominant response is incorrect - inhibition
      • Distraction conflict theory (Baron)
        • Conflict between task and distraction causes increased arousal, anxiety and loss of concentration
      • Coping with an audience
        • Train in front of a crowd
        • Focus on task goals
        • Lower arousal using techniques
        • Decrease importance of event

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